Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 7, pp 1838–1846 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: HAX-1 Promotes the Chemoresistance, Invasion, and Tumorigenicity of Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma Cells

  • Sa-jia Sun
  • Long Feng
  • Guo-qiang Zhao
  • Zi-ming DongEmail author
Original Article



HAX-1 is an anti-apoptotic factor and regulates the expression of DNA pol β. Interestingly, DNA polymerase pol β is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the functional role of HAX-1 in ESCC remains unclear.


To investigate the role of HAX-1 in chemoresistance, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ESCC.


Lentivirus-mediated overexpression or knockdown of HAX-1 was employed to establish ESCC EC9706 cell lines that expressed HAX-1 at different levels. The biological behaviors of these engineered cells were characterized in vitro and in vivo using a xenograft nude mice model. In addition, HAX-1 and pol β expression in the tumor tissues was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.


HAX-1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and resistance against cisplatin, increased cell invasion and suppressed apoptosis along with increased pol β expression. Conversely, HAX-1 knockdown inhibited the malignant phenotypes of EC9706 cells. The xenograft nude mice model demonstrated that HAX-1 overexpression or depletion led to increased or decreased tumor growth in vivo, respectively. Furthermore, a positive correlation of HAX-1 and pol β expression in the tumor tissues was observed.


HAX-1 promotes the proliferation, chemoresistance, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ESCC, and this is correlated with increased poly β expression. HAX-1 may represent a potential target to overcome the resistance and metastasis of ESCC.


HAX-1 DNA pol β Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Cisplatin Invasion 



We thank Dr. Zhi Huijun (NIH) for providing plasmids p∆8.2 and pVSV-G. We thank Biomedworld for providing a manuscript editing service.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sa-jia Sun
    • 1
  • Long Feng
    • 2
  • Guo-qiang Zhao
    • 2
  • Zi-ming Dong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical SciencesZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Basic Medical SciencesZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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