Parkia speciosa empty pod extract exerts anti-inflammatory properties by modulating NFκB and MAPK pathways in cardiomyocytes exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α
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Parkia speciosa Hassk is a plant found abundantly in the Southeast Asia region. Its seeds, with or without pods, have been used in traditional medicine locally to treat cardiovascular problems. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases involves inflammation and oxidative stress. Based on this information, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects of Parkia speciosa empty pod extract (PSE) on inflammation in cardiomyocytes exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). H9c2 cardiomyocytes were divided into four groups; negative control, TNF-α, PSE + TNF-α and quercetin + TNF-α. Groups 3 and 4 were pretreated with PSE ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract (500 µg/mL) or quercetin (1000 µM, positive control) for 1 h before inflammatory induction with TNF-α (12 ng/mL) for 24 h. TNF-α increased protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B cell (NFκB) p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 when compared to the negative control (p < 0.05). It also elevated iNOS activity, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species levels. These increases were significantly reduced with PSE and quercetin pretreatments. The effects of PSE were comparable to that of quercetin. PSE exhibited anti-inflammatory properties against TNF-α-induced inflammation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by modulating the NFκB and p38 MAPK pathways.
KeywordsTNF-α Inflammation Petai NFκB MAPK
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Grant (AP-2014-013) and technical help from Puan Nurul Hafizah Abas, Encik Fadhlullah Zuhair Japar Sidik and Puan Juliana Abdul Hamid.
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