Advertisement

Critical Criminology

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 437–450 | Cite as

Lone Wolf Terrorism Through a Gendered Lens: Men Turning Violent or Violent Men Behaving Violently?

  • Jude McCulloch
  • Sandra Walklate
  • JaneMaree Maher
  • Kate Fitz-Gibbon
  • Jasmine McGowanEmail author
Article

Abstract

Lone wolf terrorists, who use bombs, firearms, knives, vehicles, biological weapons, or other means to kill and injure, sometimes inflicting mass casualties, are of increasing concern to governments, police, and security forces in Western countries around the globe. This article seeks to develop a more multi-dimensional framework for understanding these actors and the attacks they perpetrate by bringing the under-examined aspect of gender to the fore. The article contributes to the body of literature on lone wolf terrorism by centering gender as a means of analyzing this phenomenon. In particular, it looks to the current criminological scholarship on lone wolf terrorism, highlighting the lack of a developed gendered analysis. The article challenges misrepresentations of male violence against women in response to and in representations of lone wolf terrorists. It argues that the proliferation of these misunderstandings in policy, practice, and scholarship undermines efforts to understand and combat effectively lone wolf terrorism.

Notes

References

  1. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2017). The Siege Part 1. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/the-lindt-cafe-siege-promo-ep-1/8529894. Accessed 8 July 2018.
  2. Barberet, R. (2014). Women, crime, and criminal justice. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates, R. A. (2012). Dancing with wolves: Today’s lone wolf terrorists. The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology 4(1) Article 1. https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/jpps/vol4/iss1/1.
  4. Bonger, W. A. (1916). Criminality and economic conditions. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  5. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brewster, M. (2018). Terror without ideology: Can authorities track the violent sub culture linked to Monday’s van attack? CBC News. April 25. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/special-forces-van-attack-1.4635704. Accessed 2 September 2018.
  7. Brown, W. (2015). Veteran coming home obtacles: Short and long-term consequences of the Iraq and Afghanistan war. In S. Walklate & R. McGarry (Eds.), Criminology and war: Transgressing the borders (pp. 120–136). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buzan, B., & Weaver, O. (2009). Macrosecuritization and security constellations: Reconsidering scale in securitization theory. Review of International Studies,35(2), 253–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chemaly, S. (2016). In Orlando, as usual, domestic violence was ignored red flag. Rolling Stone. June 13. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/in-orlando-as-usual-domestic-violence-was-ignored-red-flag-90139/. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  10. Cobbe, F. P. (1878). Wife torture in England. The Contemporary Review,32, 55–87.Google Scholar
  11. Cockburn, C. (2013). Towards a different common sense: From battlefield to household—reducing violence, transforming gender relations. https://www.cynthiacockburn.org. Accessed 15 May 2018.
  12. Commonwealth of Australia & State of New South Wales. (2015). Martin place Siege: Joint commonwealth—New South Wales review. Canberra & Sydney. https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/nationalsecurity/Documents/martin-place-siege-nsw-review.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  13. Connell, R. (2016). 100 Million Kalashnikovs: Gendered power on a world scale debate. Feminista,51, 3–17.Google Scholar
  14. Crone, M., & Harrow, M. (2011). Homegrown terrorism in the West. Terrorism and Political Violence,23(4), 521–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Danner, M., & Carmody, D. (2001). Missing gender in cases of infamous school violence: investigative research and media explanations. Justice Quarterly,18(1), 87–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dekeseredy, W., Burnham, K., Nicewarner, R., Nolan, J., & Hall-Sanchez, A. (forthcoming). Aggrieved entitlement in the ivory tower: Exploratory qualitative results from a large-scale campus climate survey. Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice and Criminology. Google Scholar
  17. Everytown For Gun Safety Support Fund. (2017). Mass shootings in the United States: 2009–2016. https://everytownresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Analysis_of_Mass_Shooting_online-pdf-032017.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  18. Fitz-Gibbon, K., & Walklate, S. (2018). Gender, crime and criminal justice (3/e). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fitz-Gibbon, K., Walklate, S., McCulloch, J., & Maher, J. (2018). Intimate partner violence, risk and security: Securing women’s lives in a global world. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Follman, M., Aronsen, G., & Pan, D. (2018). A guide to mass shootings in America. Mother Jones. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/07/mass-shootings-map/ Accessed 31 December 2018.
  21. Freeman, H. (2017). What do many lone attackers have in common? Domestic violence. The Guardian. March 29. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/mar/28/lone-attackers-domestic-violence-khalid-masood-westminster-attacks-terrorism. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  22. Gill, P., Horgan, J., & Deckert, P. (2014). Bombing alone: Tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists. Journal of Forensic Science,59(2), 425–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ging, D. (2017). Alphas, betas, and incels: Theorizing the masculinities of the manosphere. Men and Masculinities.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184x17706401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. González, A., Freilich, L., & Chermak, S. (2014). How women engage homegrown terrorism. Feminist Criminology,9(4), 344–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodmark, L. (2018). Decriminalizing domestic violence: A balanced policy approach to intimate partner violence. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Gruenewald, J., Chermak, S., & Freilich, J. (2013). Far-right lone wolf homicides in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism,36(12), 1005–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamm, M., & Spaaij, R. (2017). The age of lone wolf terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hudson, V., Ballif-Spanvill, B., Caprioli, M., & Emmett, C. (2012). Sex and world peace. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Iratzoqui, A., & McCutcheon, J. (2018). The Influence of Domestic Violence in Homicide Cases Homicide Studies,22(2), 145–160.Google Scholar
  30. Jackson, R. (2011). In defence of “terrorism”: Finding a way through a forest of misconceptions. Behavioural Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression,3(2), 116–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jenkins, B. (2011). Stray dogs and virtual armies: Radicalization and recruitment to Jihadist terrorism in the united states since 9/11. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  32. Johnson, M. P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family,57(2), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, M. P. (2008). A typology of domestic violence: Intimate terrorism, violent resistance, and situational couple violence. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kelly, L. (1988). Surviving sexual violence. Oxford: Polity.Google Scholar
  35. Khazan, O. (2017). Nearly Half of all murdered women are killed by romantic partners. The Atlantic, July 20th. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/07/homicides-women/534306/.
  36. LaFree, G., Jensen, M., James, P., & Safer-lichtenstein, A. (2018). Correlates of violent political extremism in the United States. Criminology,56(2), 233–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Larcombe, W. (2005). Compelling engagements: Feminism, rape law and romance fiction. Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
  38. MacAskill, E. (2017). Lone attackers are the biggest challenge for security services. The Guardian. March 22. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/mar/22/lone-attackers-are-the-biggest-challenge-for-security-services. Accessed 2 September 2018.
  39. McCulloch, J. (2001). Blue army: Paramilitary policing in Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  40. McCulloch, J., Maher, J., Fitz-Gibbon, K., & Walklate, S. (2018). Lone attackers and violence against women. Policy Options. May 3. http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/may-2018/lone-attackers-and-violence-against-women/. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  41. McCulloch, J., & Pickering, S. (2009). Pre-crime and counter-terrorism imagining future crime in the “war on terror”. The British Journal of Criminology,49(5), 628–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McCulloch, J., & True, J. (2015). Shifting borders: crime, borders, international relations and criminology. In J. Hamm & S. Pickering (Eds.), The Routledge handbook on crime and international migration (pp. 367–381). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. McCulloch, J., & Wilson, D. (2016). Pre-crime: Pre-emption, precaution and the future. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. McGarry, R., & Walklate, S. (2015). Placing war within criminology. In R. McGarry & S. Walklate (Eds.), Criminology and war: transgressing the borders (pp. 1–18). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. McGarry, R., & Walklate, S. (2019). The criminology of war?. Bristol: Bristol University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Monckton-Smith, J. (2012). Murder, gender and the media: Narratives of dangerous love. Vancouver: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morgan, R. (1989). The demon lover: On the sexuality of terrorism. New York: Norton Books.Google Scholar
  48. Morgan, J., & Politoff, V. (2012). Victorian print media coverage of violence against women. Melbourne: VicHealth. http://www.thelookout.org.au/sites/default/files/PVAW%20Print-media-Tech%20Report_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  49. Mullins, C., & Visagaratnam, N. (2015). Sexual and sexualized violence in armed conflict. In S. Walklate & R. McGarry (Eds.), Criminology and war: Transgressing the borders (pp. 139–157). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Orlandrew, O. E., Maisonet, Danzell, & Maisonet Montañez, L. M. (2015). Understanding the lone wolf terror phenomena: Assessing current profiles. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression,8(2), 135–159.Google Scholar
  51. Pain, R. (2012). Everyday terrorism: How fear works in domestic abuse. Durham: Centre for Social Justice and Community Action, Durham University and Scottish Women’s Aid. https://womensaid.scot/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/EverydayTerrorismReport.pdf.
  52. Pantucci, R. (2011). A typology of lone wolves: Preliminary analysis of lone Islamist Terrorists. In H. Rubin & J. Bew (Eds.), Developments in radicalisation and political violence. London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.Google Scholar
  53. Pantucci, R., Ellis, C., & Chaplais, L. (2015). Lone actor terrorism literature review. Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Services, RUSI occasional paper. https://rusi.org/sites/default/files/201512_clat_literature_review_0.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  54. Phillips, P. J. (2013). Female lone wolf terrorism: Critiquing the economic analysis of uniquely gendered lived experiences. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2347881. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  55. Pitcavage, M. (2015). Cerberus unleashed: The three faces of the lone wolf terrorist. American Behavioral Scientist,59(13), 1655–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Richman, A., & Sharan, Y. (2015). Lone actors—an emerging security threat. NATO science for peace and security series—E: Human and societal dynamics. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://ebooks.iospress.nl/volume/lone-actors-an-emerging-security-threat. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  57. Sageman, M. (2008). Leaderless Jihad: Terror networks in the twenty-first century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saltman, E. M. (2016). Orlando and nice attacks: Domestic violence links to radicalisation. BBC News, 22nd July. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-36861840.
  59. Schuurman, B., Lindekilde, L., Malthaner, S., O’Connor, F., Gill, P., & Bouhana, N. (2018). End of the lone wolf: The typology that should not have been. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism,42(8), 771–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sechrist, S. M., & Weil, J. D. (2017). Assessing the impact of a focused deterrence strategy to combat intimate partner domestic violence. Violence Against Women,24(3), 243–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simon, J. (2013). Lone wolf terrorism: Understanding the growing threat. New York: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  62. Snow, D. (2018). Seige: Inside the Lindt Café siege. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  63. Spaaij, R. (2010). The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: An assessment. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism,33(9), 854–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Staff reporter. (2014). Keith Luke confessed in chilling detail to rampage of hate in Brockton. Patriot Ledger. May 13. http://www.patriotledger.com/article/20140513/News/140519009. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  65. State Coroner of New South Wales. (2017). Inquest into the deaths arising from the Lindt café Siege: Findings and recommendations. Sydney: The Coroner’s Court of New South Wales. http://www.lindtinquest.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/findings-and-recommendations.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  66. Stephenson, J. (2017). The correlation between domestic violence and terror is distressingly stark [WWW Document]. The Debrief.Google Scholar
  67. Talbot, M. (2016). Terror begins at home. The New Yorker. June 16. https://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/terror-begins-at-home. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  68. Taub, A. (2016). Control and fear: What mass killings and domestic violence have in common. New York Times. June 15. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/16/world/americas/control-and-fear-what-mass-killings-and-domestic-violence-have-in-common.html. Accessed 3 September 2018.
  69. Tomsen, S. (1997). A top night: Social protest, masculinity and the culture of drinking violence. The British Journal of Criminology,37(1), 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walklate, S., McCulloch, J., Fitz-Gibbon, K., & Maher, J. (2019). Criminology, gender and security in the Australian context: Making women’s lives matter. Theoretical Criminology,23(1), 60–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walklate, S., & Mythen, G. (2015). Contradictions of terrorism: Security, risk and resilience. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Walklate, S., & Mythen, G. (2016). Fractured lives, splintered knowledge: Making criminological sense of the January, 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris. Critical Criminology: An International Journal,24(3), 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Winlow, S., & Hall, S. (2006). Violent night. London: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
  74. World Health Organization and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: Taking action and generating evidence. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/9789241564007/en/. Accessed 3 September 2018.

Cases

  1. R v Droudis (No. 16) [2017] NSWSC 20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Monash Gender and Family Violence Prevention Centre, Criminology, School of Social SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Eleanor Rathbone Chair of Sociology Conjoint with Professor of CriminologyMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Law and Social JusticeUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations