Advertisement

Examining gender differences in reintegrative shaming theory: the role of shame acknowledgment

  • Chivon H. FitchEmail author
  • Zavin Nazaretian
Article

Abstract

Reintegrative shaming theory operates on the assumption that shaming from important others is gendered: women are more likely than men to conform and desist from offending. This study examines the validity of this assumption using measures of parent shame, peer shame, and shame acknowledgment to determine the impact of shame on offending and conformity. Using waves six and seven of the National Youth Survey Family Study data, zero-inflated negative binomial modeling is employed to examine the impact of reintegrative shaming on female and male offending and non-offending behavior among a probability sample of adults (N = 1227). Parent shaming is not a significant predictor of offending, but peer shaming is influential. The relationship between gender and conformity was mediated by shame acknowledgement. Although the reintegrative shaming process is not as influential as the theory had predicted, the importance of shame for explaining prevalence in women is demonstrated.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Lauritsen, J. L., Heimer, K., & Lynch, J. P. (2009). Trends in the gender gap in violent offending: new evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminology, 47(2), 361–399.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00149.x.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mears, D. P., Ploeger, M., & Warr, M. (1998). Explaining the gender gap in delinquency: peer influence and moral evaluations of behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35(3), 251–266.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427898035003001.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith, D. A., & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 24(2), 140–172.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427887024002004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steffensmeier, D. (1993). National trends in female arrests, 1960–1990: assessment and recommendations for research. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9(4), 411–441.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01064111.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steffensmeier, D., Schwartz, J., Zhong, H. U. A., & Ackerman, J. (2005). An assessment of recent trends in Girls' violence using diverse longitudinal sources: is the gender gap closing? Criminology, 43(2), 355–406.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0011-1348.2005.00011.x.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steffensmeier, D., Zhong, H., Ackerman, J., Schwartz, J., & Agha, S. (2006). Gender gap trends for violent crimes, 1980 to 2003: a UCR-NCVS comparison. Feminist Criminology, 1, 72–98.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085105283953.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daigle, L. E., Cullen, F. T., & Wright, J. P. (2007). Gender differences in the predictors of juvenile delinquency. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(3), 254–286.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204007301289.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heimer, K. (1996). Gender, interaction, and delinquency: testing a theory of differential social control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59(1), 39–61.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2787118.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804618.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bennett, K. J. (1996). A family model of shaming and delinquency: A partial test of Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory. Huntsville: Sam Houston State University.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Losoncz, I., & Tyson, G. (2007). Parental shaming and adolescent delinquency: a partial test of reintegrative shaming theory. Austrailian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(2), 161–178.  https://doi.org/10.1375/acri.40.2.161 Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shover, N., Norland, S., James, J., & Thornton, W. E. (1979). Gender roles and delinquency. Social Forces, 58, 162–175.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/58.1.162.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chesney-Lind, M. (2006). Patriarchy, crime, and justice: feminist criminology in an era of backlash. Feminist Criminology, 1, 6–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085105282893.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daly, K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1988). Feminism and criminology. Justice Quarterly, 5, 497–538.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07418828800089871.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hagan, J., Gillis, A. R., & Simpson, J. (1985). The class structure of gender and delinquency: toward a power-control theory of common delinquent behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1151–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1086/228206.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tibbetts, S. G., & Herz, D. C. (1996). Gender differences in factors of social control and rational choice. Deviant Behavior, 17(2), 183–208.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1996.9968022.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schur, E. M. (1984). Labeling women deviant: Gender, stigma, and social control. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tignor, S. M., & Colvin, C. R. (2017). The interpersonal adaptiveness of dispositional guilt and shame: a meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality, 85(3), 341–363.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hay, C. (2001). An exploratory test of Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 132–153.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427801038002002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGivern, J. L. (2005). A test of reintegrative shaming theory and its effects on juvenile delinquency. (Master's), University of Washington, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tittle, C. R., Jason, B., & Gertz, M. G. (2003). A test of a micro-level application of shaming theory. Social Problems, 50(4), 592–617.  https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2003.50.4.592.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang, L., & Zhang, S. (2004). Reintegrative shaming and predatory delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(4), 433–453.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427803262077.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ahmed, E., Harris, N., Braithwaite, J., & Braithwaite, V. (2001). Shame management through reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1556688.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fitch, C., Nazaretian, Z., & Himmel, D. (2018). Exploring the efficacy of reintegrative shaming for non-predatory offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 28(4), 361–368.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.2072.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ahmed, E. (2001). Shame management: Regulating bullying. In E. Ahmed, N. Harris, J. Braithwaite, & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Shame management through reintegration (pp. 211–311). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1375/acri.38.3.398.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Braithwaite, J., Ahmed, E., & Braithwaite, V. (2008). Shame, restorative justice, and crime. In F. Cullen, J. Wright, & K. Belvins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Vol. 15, pp. 397–418). New Brunswick: Transaction.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315130620.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Darvill, T. J., Johnson, R. C., & Danko, G. P. (1992). Personality correlates of public and private self consciousness. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(3), 383–384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90120-E.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ahmed, E., & Braithwaite, J. (2005). Forgiveness, shaming, shame and bullying. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 38(3), 298–323.  https://doi.org/10.1375/acri.38.3.298.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ahmed, E., & Braithwaite, V. (2004). “What, me ashamed?” shame management and school bullying. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(3), 269–294.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427804266547.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Braithwaite, J., & Braithwaite, V. (2001). Shame and shame management. In E. Ahmed, N. Harris, J. Braithwaite, & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Shame management and regulation (Vol. 32, pp. 3–69). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1556688.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harris, N. (2001). Shaming and shame: Regulating drink-driving. In E. Ahmed, N. Harris, J. Braithwaite, & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Shame management through reintegration (Vol. 32, p. 763). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1556688.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baumeister, R. F., Stillwell, A. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (1994). Guilt: an interpersonal approach. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 243–267.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.243.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pivetti, M., Camodeca, M., & Rapino, M. (2016). Shame, guilt, and anger: their cognitive, physiological, and behavioral correlates. Current Psychology, 35(4), 690–699.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9339-5.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Svensson, R. (2003). Gender differences in adolescent drug use the impact of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Youth & Society, 34, 300–329.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X02250095.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tangney, J. P. (1990). Assessing individual differences in proneness to shame and guilt: development of the self-conscious affect and attribution inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(1), 102–111.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.1.102.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122(1), 5–37.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.122.1.5.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Helgeson, V. S. (1993). Implications of agency and communion for patient and spouse adjustment to a first coronary event. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(5), 807–816.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.807.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Helgeson, V. S. (1994a). Prototypes and dimensions of masculinity and femininity. Sex Roles, 31(11–12), 653–682.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01544286.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Helgeson, V. S. (1994b). Relation of agency and communion to well-being: evidence and potential explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 412–428.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.412.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kashima, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Kim, U., Choi, S. C., Gelfand, M. J., & Yuki, M. (1995). Culture, gender, and self: a perspective from individualism-collectivism research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 925–937.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Saragovi, C., Koestner, R., Di Dio, L., & Aubé, J. (1997). Agency, communion, and well-being: extending Helgeson's (1994) model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 593–609.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.3.593.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bartusch, D. J., & Matsueda, R. L. (1996). Gender, reflected appraisals, and labeling: a Cross-group test of an interactionist theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 75(1), 145–176.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/75.1.145.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pfeifer, J. H., Masten, C. L., Borofsky, L. A., Dapretto, M., Fuligni, A. J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2009). Neural correlates of direct and reflected self-appraisals in adolescents and adults: when social perspective-taking informs self-perception. Child Development, 80(4), 1016–1038.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01314.x.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schwalbe, M. L., & Staples, C. L. (1991). Gender differences in sources of self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 54, 158–168.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2786933.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Heimer, K., & De Coster, S. (1999). The gendering of violent delinquency. Criminology, 37(2), 277–318.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00487.x.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    De Coster, Stacy. (2003). A gendered role-taking and social learning perspective on delinquency and depression (pp. 129–51). In R. L. Akers & G. F. Jensen (Eds.), Social learning theory and the explanation of crime: A guide for the new century, Vol. 11, In the Advances in Criminological Theory series. New Brunswick: Transaction.  https://doi.org/10.1177/009430610403300653.
  49. 49.
    Elliott, D. S., & Ageton, S. S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official measures. American Sociological Review, 44, 95–110.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2095245.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huizinga, D. (1978). Description of the National Youth Sample The National Youth Survey Project (Vol. Report No. 2). Boulder: Behavioral Research Institute.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glaser, D. (1967). National goals and indicators for the reduction of crime and delinquency. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 371(1), 104–126.  https://doi.org/10.1177/000271626737100107.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ajzen, I., & Fisbbein, M. (1974). Factors influencing intentions and the intention-behavior relation. Human Relations, 27(1), 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001872677402700101.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tangney, J. P., Wagner, P., Fletcher, C., & Gramzow, R. (1992). Shamed into anger? The relation of shame and guilt to anger and self-reported aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(4), 669–675.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.62.4.669.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Torgrimson, B. N., & Minson, C. T. (2005). Sex and gender: what is the difference? Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(3), 785–787.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00376.2005.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Atkins, D. C., & Gallop, R. J. (2007). Rethinking how family researchers model infrequent outcomes: a tutorial on count regression and zero-inflated models. Journal of Family Psychology: Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 21(4), 726–735.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.726.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Flynn, M., & Francis, L. A. (2009). More flexible GLMs zero-inflated models and hybrid models. Casualty Actuarial Society EForum, Winter, U.S.A., pp. 148–224.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cox, D. R. (1983). Some remarks on overdispersion. Biometrika, 70(1), 269–274.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2335966.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yau, K. K. W., Wang, K., & Lee, A. H. (2003). Zero-inflated negative binomial mixed regression modeling of over-dispersed count data with extra Zeros. Biometrical Journal, 45(4), 437–452.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.200390024.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang, J., Xie, H., & Fisher, J. H. (2012). Multilevel models: Applications using SAS. Germany: Higher Education Press.  https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110267709.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Uludag, S., Colvin, M., Hussey, D., & Eng, A. L. (2009). Modernization, inequality, routine activities, and international variations in household property crimes. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 4(1).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13(1982), 290–312.  https://doi.org/10.2307/270723.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goodman, L. A. (1960). On the exact variance of products. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 55(292), 708–713.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1960.10483369.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Botchkovar, E., & Tittle, C. R. (2005). Crime, shame and reintegration in Russia. Theoretical Criminology, 9(4), 401–442.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480605057726.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Botchkovar, E., & Tittle, C. R. (2008). Delineating the scope of reintegrative shaming theory: an explanation of contingencies using Russian data. Social Science Research, 37(3), 703–720.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.12.001.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge. Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2004). Idealized media images and adolescent body image:“comparing” boys and girls. Body Image, 1(4), 351–361.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.10.002.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. American Psychological Association.  https://doi.org/10.1037/10312-000.
  70. 70.
    Yamamiya, Y., Cash, T. F., Melnyk, S. E., Posavac, H. D., & Posavac, S. S. (2005). Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions. Body Image, 2(1), 74–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.11.001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CriminologyIndiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP)IndianaUSA
  2. 2.Department of CriminologyAdrian CollegeAdrianUSA

Personalised recommendations