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Bio-smuggling in Turkey

  • Üstüner Birben
  • Gökçe Gençay
Article

Abstract

Turkey is among the countries with the richest biodiversity in Europe and the Middle East; it ranks ninth in the European continent in terms of biodiversity. Its distinct and varied geography affords a high level of endemism and genetic diversity. Due to its high level of endemism and genetic diversity, Turkey is also a center of attraction in terms of genetic resources. This raises the issue of bio-smuggling, which is a significant problem that threatens both the biodiversity and the economic future of the country. The insufficiency of legal, political and institutional systems are a major determining factor on the problem of bio-smuggling in Turkey. Although there are 50 different legislations (11 different international conventions, 14 different laws, 2 different statutory decrees, and 23 different specific regulations) germane to bio-smuggling, between 2002 and 2015 59 incidents of bio-smuggling were documented. Prevention of bio-smuggling in Turkey has remained low and insufficient. With this study, we will review and examine several case examples: legal ramifications of combatting bio-smuggling; pertinent national regulations; legal and administrative sanctions against bio-smuggling and their effectiveness.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest EngineeringÇankırı Karatekin UniversityÇankırıTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest EngineeringBartın UniversityBartınTurkey

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