Advertisement

International Anti-Corruption Initiatives: a Classification of Policy Interventions

  • Jean-Patrick Villeneuve
  • Giulia MugelliniEmail author
  • Marlen Heide
Article

Abstract

In recent decades, the number of anti-corruption policies developed in the public sector increased considerably. However, existing attempts at classifying them do not fully address the complexity of corruption types, risk factors, and policy environments. Owing to a limited problem description, existing classifications do not always account for the full spectrum of potential policy tools, thus impeding the design, monitoring, and evaluation of anti-corruption interventions. By reviewing the main features of more than 30 international initiatives targeting administrative corruption, this paper aims at identifying the core elements for a comprehensive and actionable typology of anti-corruption policies. A content analysis of the existing international efforts highlights the importance of considering three main groups of variables for classifying anti-corruption initiatives: the type of gain involved in the corrupt conduct, the mechanism of intervention exploited by the policy, and the type of policy tool. The typology provides an interdisciplinary perspective on existing anti-corruption efforts, confronting well-known criminological distinctions with a detailed classification of policy instruments. The study also identifies the main features and limits of existing anti-corruption classifications and efforts, such as the predominance of the economic paradigm and the focus on the characteristics of developing countries for problematizing corruption.

Keywords

Typology Anti-corruption policies Prevention mechanisms International organizations 

Notes

References

  1. Báger, G. (2011). Corruption Risk in Public Administration. Public Finance Quarterly, 56(1), 44–57.Google Scholar
  2. Blind PK (2011). Perspective of corruption metrics. Prepared for the workshop on Engaging Citizens to Counter Corruption for Better Public Service Delivery and Achievement of the Millenium Development Goals. 4th Session of the Conference of the State Partie (CoSP) to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), Morocco.Google Scholar
  3. Booth, D., & Fritz, V. (2008). Good Governance, Aid Modalities and Poverty Reduction: From Better Theory to Better Practice. Dublin: Advisory Board for Irish Aid.Google Scholar
  4. Brunetti, A., & Weder, B. (2003). A Free Press Is Bad News for Corruption. Journal of Public Economics, 87(7–8), 1801–1824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. In M. Tonry & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention (pp. 91–150). Crime and Justice vol 19. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Council of Europe (2013). Designing and implementing anti-corruption policies handbook. Eastern Partnership-Council of Europe Facility Project on “Good Governance and Fight against Corruption”. https://rm.coe.int/16806d8ad7.
  7. Dish, A., Vigeland, E., Sundet, G. & Gibson, S. (2009). Anti-corruption approaches: a literature review. Joint Evaluation 2009:1. https://norad.no/en/toolspublications/publications/2009/anti-corruption-approaches-a-literature-review/ Accessed 13 June 2017.
  8. Esadze, L. (2013). Glossary of the conflict of interest and corruption terms. http://www.info-evropa.rs/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Londa-Esadze-Glossary-of-the-Conflict-of-Interest-and-Corruption-Terms.pdf Accessed 11 July 2017.
  9. European Commission (2014). Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. EU Anti-Corruption Report. 3.2.2014 COM (2014) 38 final, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  10. Felson, M. (2006). Crime and nature. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Gould, D. J. (1991). Administrative Corruption: Incidence, Causes, and Remedial Strategies. In A. Farazmand (Ed.), Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration (pp. 467–480). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  12. Graycar, A. (2015). Corruption: Classification and analysis. Policy and Society, 34(2015), 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graycar, A., & Masters, A. B. (2018). Preventing Malfeasance in Low Corruption Environments. Journal of Financial Crime, 25(1), 170–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Graycar, A., & Monaghan, O. (2015). Rich Country Corruption. International Journal of Public Administration, 38(8), 586–595.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2014.949757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Graycar, A., & Sidebottom, A. (2012). Corruption and control: a corruption reduction approach. Journal of Financial Crime, 19(4), 384–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heeks, R., & Mathisen, H. (2011). Understanding Success and Failure of Anti-Corruption Initiatives. Crime, Law and Social Change, 58(5), 533–549.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-011-9361-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holmes, L. (2015). Corruption: A Very Short Introduction (p. 2015). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Howlett, M. (2010). Designing Public Policies: Principles and Instruments. Policy Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Howlett, M., Ramesh, M., & Wu, X. (2015). Understanding the persistence of policy failures: The role of politics, governance and uncertainty. Public Policy and Administration, 30(3–4), 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huberts, L. W. J. C. (1998). What can be done against public corruption and fraud: expert views on strategies to protect public integrity. Crime, Law and Social Change, 29, 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Independent Commission Against Corruption (European Union) – ICAC (2009). Public Sector Anti-Corruption Framework Manual. European Union Decentralised Cooperation Programme. https://www.icac.mu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Public-Sector-Anti-Corruption-Framework.pdf.
  22. Jancsics, D. (2019). Corruption as Resource Transfer: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis. Public Administration Review.  https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13024.
  23. Johnsøn, J. (2012). Theories of change in anti-corruption work: A tool for programme design and evaluation (U4 Issues Paper No. 2012:6). Bergen: U4, Chr. Michelsen Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Kaufmann, D., & Kraay, A. (2008). Governance indicators: where are we, where should we be going? The World Bank Research Observer, 23, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaufmann, D., & Vicente, P. C. (2011). Legal Corruption. Economics and Politics, 23(2), 195–219.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0343.2010.00377.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambsdorff, J. G. (2009). The Organization of Anticorruption: Getting Incentives Right. In R. I. Rotberg (Ed.), Corruption, Global Security, and World Order. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lange, D. (2008). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Organizational Corruption Control. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 710–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCusker, R. (2006). Review of Anti-Corruption Strategies. Technical and Background Paper, 23. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, Australia and Transparency International/United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2004. Tools to support transparency in local governance. Urban governance toolkit series. Nairobi: UN-Habitat OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Mills May, A. (2012). Causes of corruption in public sector institutions and its impact on development: turning what we know into what we do. Expert Group Meeting UNPAN, 14th June 2012. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan049589.pdf.
  30. Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2015). The Quest for Good Governance: How Societies Develop Control of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2003). Anti-Corruption Instruments and The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Abingdon: OECD Secreteriat.Google Scholar
  32. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2007a). Bribery in Public Procurement. Methods, Actors and Counter-Measures. Abingdon: OECD.Google Scholar
  33. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007b). Corruption. A glossary of international and criminal standards.Google Scholar
  34. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2009). Recommendation for further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Abingdon: OECD.Google Scholar
  35. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2010). Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics, and Compliance. Abingdon: OECD.Google Scholar
  36. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2015). Consequences of Corruption at the Sector Level and Implications for Economic Growth and Development. Abingdon: OECD.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264230781-en.Google Scholar
  37. Organizations for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2016). Recommendation of the Council for Development Cooperation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption. Abingdon: OECD.Google Scholar
  38. Persson, A., Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2013). Why Anticorruption Reforms Fail—Systemic Corruption as a Collective Action Problem. Governance, 26(3), 449–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rose-Ackerman, S. (1978). Corruption: a study in political economy. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  40. The World Bank (1997). Helping Countries Combat Corruption. The Role of the World Bank. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management. The World Bank. September 1997. http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/corruptn/corrptn.pdf
  41. The World Bank (2003). Youth for Good Governance. Module III. Introduction to Corruption. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/35970/mod03.pdf
  42. Transparency International (2002). Corruption Fighters Toolkit: Civil Society Experiences and Emerging Strategies.Google Scholar
  43. Transparency International (2013). Best Practices for Anti-Corruption Commissions.Google Scholar
  44. Transparency International (2015). Together against Corruption: Transparency International Strategy 2020.Google Scholar
  45. United Nations Development Programme (2011). Practitioners’ Guide: Capacity Assessment of ACAs.Google Scholar
  46. United Nations Development Programme (2014a). Global Anti-Corruption Initiative (GAIN): Highlights of the Key Achievements in 2014.Google Scholar
  47. United Nations Development Programme (2014b). UNDP Global Anti-Corruption Initiative (GAIN) 2014-2017.Google Scholar
  48. United Nations Development Programme (2015). Users Guide Measuring Corruption and Anticorruption.Google Scholar
  49. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2003). United Nations Guide on Anti-Corruption Policy. Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  50. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2004). United Nations Convention Against Corruption. Vienna, Austria. http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/Convention/08-50026_E.pdf
  51. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2006). Legislative guide for the implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption.Google Scholar
  52. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013). Guidebook on anti-corruption in public procurement and the management of public finances. Good practices in ensuring compliance with article 9 of the United Nations Convention against Corruption. United Nations, Vienna.Google Scholar
  53. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2015). National Anti-Corruption Strategies: a Practical Guide for Development and Implementation. Vienna.Google Scholar
  54. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research. (2009). Technical guide to the united nations convention against corruption. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  55. USAID (2009). Anticorruption Assessment Handbook Final Report. USAID & Management Systems International 2009.Google Scholar
  56. Vannucci, A. (2015). Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption. Labour & Law Issues, 1(2).Google Scholar
  57. World Bank (2006). Governance and Anti-Corruption: Ways to Enhance the World Bank’s Impact http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTOED/Resources/governance_anticorruption.pdf.
  58. Zhang, Y., & Vargas-Hernández, J. G. (2017). Introduction: Corruption and Government Anti-Corruption Strategies. In Y. Zhang & C. Lavena (Eds.), Government Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Patrick Villeneuve
    • 1
  • Giulia Mugellini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marlen Heide
    • 1
  1. 1.Università della Svizzera ItalianaLuganoSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations