Executive Dysfunction and Emotion Dysregulation Explain the Effects of Insomnia Symptoms on Repetitive Negative Thinking
- 9 Downloads
Although research has linked insomnia symptoms to repetitive negative thinking (RNT), few studies have examined how insomnia symptoms are associated with RNT over time or specific factors that may account for this relationship. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by examining executive function and emotion regulation as mediators of the relationship between insomnia symptoms and RNT over 3 months. A final sample of 357 unselected community participants completed measures of insomnia symptoms and RNT at time 1, executive function 1 month later (time 2), emotion regulation 2 months later (time 3), and RNT again 3 months later (time 4). Results revealed that insomnia symptoms were associated with increased RNT over 3 months through an indirect effect of executive function on emotion regulation. An alternate model in which emotion regulation at time 2 and executive function at time 3 mediated the effect of insomnia symptoms on RNT was also significant; however, the effect size was relatively reduced. These findings implicate executive function and emotion regulation as factors that may explain the role of insomnia symptoms in the development of RNT observed in many psychiatric disorders.
KeywordsInsomnia Sleep Repetitive thinking Executive function Emotion regulation
The authors would like to thank Dylan Ashbach and Hunter Savage for their help with manuscript preparation.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Rebecca C. Cox, Sarah C. Jessup, and Bunmi O. Olatunji declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects who participated in the study.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this paper.
- Alwin, D. F., & Hauser, R. M. (1975). The decomposition of effects in path analysis. American Sociological Review, 40, 37–47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094445.
- Bjureberg, J., Ljotsson, B., Tull, M. T., Hedman, E., Sahlin, H., Lundh, L. G., … Gratz, K.L. (2016). Development and validation of a brief version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale: The DERS-16. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 284–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9514-x.
- Buchanan, T., Heffernan, T. M., Parrott, A. C., Ling, J., Rodgers, J., & Scholey, A. B. (2010). A short self-report measure of problems with executive function suitable for administration via the Internet. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 709–714. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.3.709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chamberlain, S. R., Blackwell, A. D., Fineberg, N. A., Robbins, T. W., & Sahakian, B. J. (2005). The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: The importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 399–419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coles, M. E., Cook, L. M., & Blake, T. R. (2007). Assessing obsessive compulsive symptoms and cognitions on the internet: Evidence for the comparability of paper and Internet administration. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2232–2240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.12.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ehring, T., Zetsche, U., Weidacker, K., Wahl, K., Schonfeld, S., & Ehlers, A. (2011). The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): Validation of a content-independent measure of RNT. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 225–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Francis, L. J., Brown, L. B., & Philipchalk, R. (1992). The development of an abbreviated form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-A): Its use among students in England, Canada, the USA, and Australia. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 443–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90073-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harris, P. A., Scott, K. W., Lebo, L., Hassan, N., Lightner, C., & Pulley, J. (2012). ResearchMatch: A national registry to recruit volunteers for clinical research. Academic medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 87, 66–73. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31823ab7d2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harris, P. A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J. G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap): A metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Information, 42, 377–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2008.08.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Ho, F. Y. Y., Chan, C. S., & Tang, K. N. S. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 90–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoerger, M., Chapman, B. P., Mohile, S. G., & Duberstein, P. R. (2016). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10): A patient-reported psychosocial survey for quality cancer care. Psychological Assessment, 28, 1087–1100. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kauffman, B. Y., Farris, S. G., Alfano, C. A., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2017). Emotion dysregulation explains the relation between insomnia symptoms and negative reinforcement smoking cognitions among daily smokers. Addictive behaviors, 72, 33–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nota, J. A., & Coles, M. E. (2018). Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep onset latency are related to difficulty disengaging attention from negative emotional images in individuals with elevated transdiagnostic RNT. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 58, 114–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2017.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raines, A. M., Short, N. A., Sutton, C. A., Oglesby, M. E., Allan, N. P., & Schmidt, N. B. (2015). Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and insomnia: The mediating role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. Psychiatry Research, 228, 368–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reddy, R., Palmer, C. A., Jackson, C., Farris, S. G., & Alfano, C. A. (2017). Impact of sleep restriction versus idealized sleep on emotional experience, reactivity and regulation in healthy adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 26, 516–525. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Short, N. A., Allan, N. P., & Schmidt, N. B. (2017). Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom severity among individuals with PTSD: An ecological momentary assessment study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thielsch, C., Ehring, T., Nestler, S., Wolters, J., Kopei, I., Rist, F., … Andor, T. (2015). Metacognitions, worry and sleep in everyday life: Studying bidirectional pathways using ecological momentary assessment in GAD patients. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 33, 53–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.04.007.
- Timpano, K. R., Carbonella, J. Y., Bernert, R. A., & Schmidt, N. B. (2014). Obsessive compulsive symptoms and sleep difficulties: Exploring the unique relationship between insomnia and obsessions. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 57, 101–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.06.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar