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The Voice of Depression: Prevalence and Stability Across Time of Perception-Laden Intrusive Thoughts in Depression

  • Steffen MoritzEmail author
  • Jan Philipp Klein
  • Thomas Berger
  • Frank Larøi
  • Björn Meyer
Original Article

Abstract

Intrusive depressive thoughts are typically defined in terms of their content, frequency, and pervasiveness. The extent to which they carry sensory properties is largely unexplored. In a pilot study, 56.5% of individuals with mild to moderate depressive symptoms experienced depressive thoughts with sensory features. The present study explored the prevalence of sensory thoughts in patients with severe depression and examined the stability of the sensory phenomena across time. A total of 163 participants with severe depression completed an online assessment at baseline and 3 months later. Diagnostic status was established at baseline over the telephone. The primary outcome was the Sensory Properties of Depressive Thoughts Questionnaire (SPD). The frequency of sensory properties of negative thoughts was similar (60.7% reported at least one sensory irritation; thus, 39.3% of the sample reported not a single, even mild sensory irritation) to the pilot study. The highest prevalence was observed for bodily sensations (41.1%; pilot: 39.6%) followed by auditory (37.4%; pilot: 30.6%) and visual (31.3%; pilot: 27.2%) perceptions. Prevalence remained essentially unchanged over time, but test–retest reliability was weak to moderate (r = .56). Unlike in the pilot study, no association emerged with quality of life and suicidality. Yet, those reporting sensory phenomena were prescribed more medication, had a similar number of prior hospitalizations despite their younger age, were more frequently in psychotherapy (statistical trend), and had more pain symptoms, which tentatively suggests a more complicated course of illness. Replication in independent samples is needed. Our findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not “silent” but are commonly accompanied by sensory experiences.

Keywords

Depression Hallucinations Intrusions Sensory irritations 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Steffen Moritz, Jan Philipp Klein, Thomas Berger, Frank Larøi and Björn Meyer declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University Medical Center Hamburg, Germany and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Supplementary material

10608_2019_10030_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 46 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of LuebeckLübeckGermany
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  5. 5.Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Research UnitUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  6. 6.NORMENT – Norwegian Center of Excellence for Mental Disorders ResearchUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  7. 7.Research DepartmentGaiaHamburgGermany
  8. 8.Department of PsychologyCity University of LondonLondonUK

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