Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 114–120 | Cite as

Co-use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Combustible Cigarettes, and Their Association with Internalizing Pathology and Vulnerabilities

  • Mark V. Versella
  • Allison M. Borges
  • Christopher Lin
  • Teresa M. LeyroEmail author
Original Article


Nicotine use and psychological distress exert negative bidirectional effects on one another, and are impacted by shared vulnerabilities. Little work has examined the extent to which these relations differ between adult electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDs) users with varied combustible cigarette use histories. The current study examined differences in internalizing symptoms and vulnerabilities between adult dual and single ENDs users with and without a history of combustible cigarette use. Single ENDs users without combustible use histories reported significantly greater stress and anxiety symptoms than single ENDs users with combustible use histories. Single ENDs users without combustible use histories reported greater anxiety and difficulty regulating their emotions than dual-users. Dual- and single users with prior combustible use histories did not differ in internalizing pathology or vulnerability presentations. This suggests that pathology and vulnerability presentation among nicotine users are influenced by both current and past nicotine use history.


Nicotine Electronic cigarettes Anxiety Distress tolerance Anxiety sensitivity Emotion regulation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mark V. Versella, Allison M. Borges, Christopher Lin and Teresa M. Leyro have no conflicts of interest to report.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark V. Versella
    • 1
  • Allison M. Borges
    • 1
  • Christopher Lin
    • 2
  • Teresa M. Leyro
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRutgers, The State University of New JerseyPiscatawayUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyAmerican UniversityWashingtonUSA

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