Is Integrated CBT Effective in Reducing PTSD Symptoms and Substance Use in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans? Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial
This study is the first to examine integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) in a sample of military veterans with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine primary outcomes from a small, randomized clinical trial comparing ICBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU only in a sample (N = 44) of U.S. veterans who served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. A significant reduction in PTSD and SUD symptoms over time was detected in both conditions. One significant time-by-condition interaction effect for re-experiencing symptoms was observed, with ICBT showing greater reductions from baseline to post-treatment. Overall, the efficacy of ICBT in this veteran sample was not as robust as outcomes with non-veteran patients. Challenges to engagement and retention in treatment and further intervention adaptations for veterans are discussed.
KeywordsPosttraumatic stress disorder Substance use Veterans Cognitive behavioral therapy Treatment outcomes
This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA; Grant R01DA030102).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Christy Capone, Candice Presseau, Elizabeth Saunders, Erica Eaton, Jessica Hamblen and Mark McGovern declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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