Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 803–812 | Cite as

Understanding the Constellation of Adolescent Emotional Clarity and Cognitive Response Styles when Predicting Depression: A Latent Class Analysis

  • Brae Anne McArthurEmail author
  • Liza M. Haas
  • Taylor A. Burke
  • Lisa E. Johnson
  • Thomas M. Olino
  • Lyn Y. Abramson
  • Lauren B. Alloy
Original Article


Adolescence is a period of human development associated with increased emotional intensity and heightened vulnerability to developing psychopathology. This study used Latent Class Analysis to identify subgroups of youth based on emotional clarity and cognitive response styles. Participants were 436 adolescents (51.8% female; 48.2% African-American/Black, 47.4% Caucasian/White) who completed measures of emotional clarity, cognitive response styles, and depression at baseline (M = 13.02 years, SD = .83), and at a 1-year and 4-year follow-up. Four classes were identified and used to predict depression outcomes. Overall, youth with above average emotional clarity who reported using a variety of adaptive cognitive response styles also had the lowest level of depressive symptoms at baseline. Class membership did not predict depressive symptoms at any follow-up. The results suggest that the unique profiles based on youth reported levels of emotional clarity and use of problem solving, distraction, and rumination, may not be more predictive of depression outcomes, beyond earlier assessments of depression or by examining these facets in isolation.


Latent class analysis Adolescence Cognitive coping Emotional clarity Psychopathology 



This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants MH79369 and MH101168 to Lauren B. Alloy. Brae Anne McArthur was supported by a Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. Taylor A. Burke was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Brae Anne McArthur, Liza M. Haas, Taylor A. Burke, Lisa E. Johnson, Thomas M. Olino, Lyn Y. Abramson and Lauren B. Alloy declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Informed Consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brae Anne McArthur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liza M. Haas
    • 1
  • Taylor A. Burke
    • 1
  • Lisa E. Johnson
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Olino
    • 1
  • Lyn Y. Abramson
    • 2
  • Lauren B. Alloy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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