Behavioural Insights and (Un)healthy Dietary Choices: a Review of Current Evidence

  • J. M. BauerEmail author
  • L. A. Reisch
Original Paper


This paper reviews the current evidence about behavioural insights in the field of (un)healthy food choice that can support the development of behavioural public-policy tools. It extends previous work on behaviourally based policies in health and food choice, both academic and professional. The core of the paper is a summary of reviews of behavioural insights-based interventions and the scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in nudging people towards healthier food choices. Overall, we cover 39 systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses published between 2010 and 2017. Additionally, we outline potential drivers and theories that could help to explain the mechanisms behind these interventions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results and suggestions for policy-makers aiming to make use of behavioural insights in health policy.


Choice architecture Food choice Review Behavioural policy Nudge 


  1. Aarts, H., & Elliot, A. J. (2012). Goal-directed behavior. New York: Psychology Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afshin, A., Peñalvo, J. L., Del Gobbo, L., Silva, J., Michaelson, M., O'Flaherty, et al. (2017). The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 12(3), e0172277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan, J. L., Querstret, D., Banas, K., & de Bruin, M. (2017). Environmental interventions for altering eating behaviours of employees in the workplace: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 18(2), 214–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. An, R. (2013). Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: A review of field experiments. Public Health Nutrition, 16(7), 1215–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreyeva, T., Long, M. W., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). The impact of food prices on consumption: A systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anzman-Frasca, S., Mueller, M. P., Sliwa, S., Dolan, P. R., Harelick, L., Roberts, S. B., et al. (2015). Changes in children’s meal orders following healthy menu modifications at a regional US restaurant chain. Obesity, 23(5), 1055–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appelhans, B. M., French, S. A., Pagoto, S. L., & Sherwood, N. E. (2016). Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies. Appetite, 96, 268–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arno, A., & Thomas, S. (2016). The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 16(676).Google Scholar
  9. Au, N., French, S. A., Pagoto, S. L., & Sherwood, N. E. (2013). The cost-effectiveness of shopping to a predetermined grocery list to reduce overweight and obesity. Nutrition & Diabetes, 3(6), e77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Azman, N., & Sahak, S. Z. (2014). Nutritional label and consumer buying decision: A preliminary review. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, 490–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartlett, S., Klerman, J., Olsho, L., Logan, C., Blocklin, M., Beauregard, M., et al. (2014). Evaluation of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) final report. United States Department of Agriculture. Available at:
  12. Belot, M., James, J., & Nolen, P. (2016). Incentives and children’s dietary choices: A field experiment in primary schools. Journal of Health Economics, 50, 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benartzi, S., Beshears, J., Milkman, K. L., Sunstein, C. R., Thaler, R. H., Shankar, M., et al. (2017). Should governments invest more in nudging? Psychological Science, 28(8), 1041–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benton, D. (2015). Portion size: What we know and what we need to know. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 988–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berthoud, H.-R. (2012). The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71(4), 478–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bischoff, S. C., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Chourdakis, M., Cuerda, C., Delzenne, N. M., et al. (2017). Towards a multidisciplinary approach to understand and manage obesity and related diseases. Clinical Nutrition, 36(4), 917–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. BIT. (2015). The Behavioural insights team update report 2013–2015. London: Behavioural Insights Team.Google Scholar
  18. Bleich, S. N., Economis, C. D., Spiker, M. L., Vercammen, K. L., van Epps, E. M., Block, J. P., et al. (2017). A systematic review of calorie labeling and modified calorie labeling interventions: Impact on consumer and restaurant behavior. Obesity, 25(12), 2018–2044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blumenthal-Barby, J. S., & Burroughs, H. (2012). Seeking better health care outcomes: The ethics of using the “nudge”. The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(2), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boland, W. A., Connell, P. M., & Vallen, B. (2013). Time of day effects on the regulation of food consumption after activation of health goals. Appetite, 70, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyland, E. J., & Whalen, R. (2015). Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: Review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatric Diabetes, 16(5), 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brambila-Macias, J., Shankar, B., Capacci, S., Mazzocchi, M., Perez-Cueto, F. J., Verbeke, W., et al. (2011). Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: A review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 32(4), 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Broers, J. V., De Breucker, C., Van den Broucke, S., & Luminet, O. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of nudging to increase fruit and vegetable choice. European Journal of Public Health, 27(5), 912–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brunstrom, J. M., & Rogers, P. J. (2009). How many calories are on our plate? Expected fullness, not liking, determines meal-size selection. Obesity, 17(10), 1884–1890 (Silver Spring, MD).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brunstrom, J. M., Burn, J. F., Sell, N. R., Collingwood, J. M., Rogers, P. J., Wilkinson, L. L., et al. (2012). Episodic memory and appetite regulation in humans. PLoS One, 7(12), e50707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bucher, T., Collins, C., Rollo, M. E., McCaffrey, T. A., De Vlieger, N., Van der Bend, D., et al. (2016). Nudging consumers towards healthier choices: A systematic review of positional influences on food choice. British Journal of Nutrition, 115(9), 1–12.Google Scholar
  27. Buckland, N. J., Finlayson, G., & Hetherington, M. M. (2013). Pre-exposure to diet-congruent food reduces energy intake in restrained dieting women. Eating Behaviors, 14(3), 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Buscher, L. A., Martin, K. A., & Crocker, S. (2001). Point-of-purchase messages framed in terms of cost, convenience, taste, and energy improve healthful snack selection in a college foodservice setting. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101(8), 909–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cadario, R., & Chandon, P. (2017). Which healthy eating nudges work best? A meta-analysis of behavioral interventions in field experiments. INSEAD Working Paper series 2017/77/MKT. Available at:
  30. Cameron, J. D., Goldfield, G. S., Finlayson, G., Blundell, J. E., & Doucet, É. (2014). Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues. PLoS One, 9(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Campos, S., Doxey, J., & Hammond, D. (2011). Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods: A systematic review. Public Health Nutrition, 14(8), 1496–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cantu-Jungles, T. M., McCormack, L. A., Slaven, J. E., Slebodnik, M., & Eicher-Miller, H. A. (2017). A meta-analysis to determine the impact of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients (ordered or consumed) in U.S. adults. Nutrients, 9(10), 20–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Capacci, S., Mazzocchi, M., Shankar, B., Macias, J. B., Verbeke, W., Pérez-Cueto, F. J., et al. (2012). Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: A structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutrition Reviews, 70(3), 188–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Casazza, K., Fontaine, K. R., Astrup, A., Birch, L. L., Brown, A. W., Brown, B., et al. (2013). Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(5), 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cecchini, M., & Warin, L. (2016). Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies. Obesity Reviews, 17(3), 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cecchini, M., Sassi, F., Lauer, J. A., Lee, Y. Y., Guajardo-Barron, V., & Chisholm, D. (2010). Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: Health effects and cost-effectiveness. The Lancet, 376(9754), 1775–1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cha, E. S., Kim, K. H., Lerner, H. M., Dawkins, C. R., Bello, M. K., Umpierrez, G., et al. (2014). Health literacy, self-efficacy, food label use, and diet in young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(3), 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chandon, P., & Wansink, B. (2007). Is obesity caused by calorie underestimation? A psychophysical model of meal size estimation. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cheung, T. T. L., Kroesea, F. M., Fennis, B. M., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2017). The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts. Appetite, 116, 401–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Coelho, J. S., Polivy, J., Herman, C. P., & Pliner, P. (2009). Wake up and smell the cookies. Effects of olfactory food-cue exposure in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Appetite, 52(2), 517–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen, G. I., Fernandez Lynch, H., & Robertson, C. T. (Eds.). (2016). Nudging health: Health law and behavioural economics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Crolic, C., & Janiszewski, C. (2016). Hedonic escalation: When food just tastes better and better. Journal of Consumer Research, 43(3), 388–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Crum, A. J., Corbin, W. R., Brownell, K. D., & Salovey, P. (2011). Mind over milkshakes: Mindsets, not just nutrients, determine Ghrelin response. Health Psychology, 30(4), 424–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cruwys, T., Bevelander, K. E., & Hermans, R. C. J. (2015). Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice. Appetite, 86, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. de Linde, L. M., Stanley, T. D., & Doucouliagos, H. (2013). Does the UK minimum wage reduce employment? A meta-regression analysis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(3), 499–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. de Wijk, R. A., Maaskant, A. J., Polet, I. A., Holthuysen, N. T. E., van Kleef, E., & Vingerhoeds, M. H. (2016). An in-store experiment on the effect of accessibility on sales of wholegrain and white bread in supermarkets. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deb, P., & Vargas, C. (2016). Who benefits from calorie labeling? An analysis of its effects on body mass. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 21992.Google Scholar
  48. Deliens, T., Van Crombruggen, R., Verbruggen, S., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., & Clarys, P. (2016). Dietary interventions among university students: A systematic review. Appetite, 105, 14–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dickson-Spillmann, M., & Siegrist, M. (2011). Consumers’ knowledge of healthy diets and its correlation with dietary behaviour. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(1), 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Döring, T., & Wansink, B. (2017). The waiter’s weight: Does a server’s BMI relate to how much food diners order? Environment and Behavior, 49(2), 192–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Doucouliagos, H., & Stanley, T. D. (2009). Publication selection bias in minimum-wage research? A meta-regression analysis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(2), 406–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Doyen, S., Klein, O., Pichon, C.-L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Behavioral priming: It’s all in the mind, but whose mind? PLoS One, 7, e29081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ducrot, P., Julia, C., Méjean, C., Kesse-Guyot, E., Touvier, M., Fezeu, L. K., et al. (2016). Impact of different front-of-pack nutrition labels on consumer purchasing intentions: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(5), 627–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Enax, L., Hu, Y., Trautner, P., & Weber, B. (2015). Nutrition labels influence value computation of food products in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Obesity, 23(4), 786–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. English, L., Lasschuijt, M., & Keller, K. L. (2015). Mechanisms of the portion size effect. What is known and where do we go from here? Appetite, 88, 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Escaron, A. L., Meinen, A. M., Nitzke, S. A., & Martinez-Donate, A. P. (2013). Supermarket and grocery store-based interventions to promote healthful food choices and eating practices: A systematic review. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10(4), E50.Google Scholar
  57. European Commission. (2014). Food information to consumers – Legislation. Available at:
  58. Eyles, H., Mhurchu, C. N., Nghiem, N., & Blakely, T. (2012). Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: A systematic review of simulation studies. PLoS Medicine, 9(12), e1001353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fay, S. H., Ferriday, D., Hinton, E. C., Shakeshaft, N. G., Rogers, P. J., & Brunstrom, J. M. (2011). What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning. Appetite, 56(2), 284–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fernandes, A. C., Oliveira, R. C., Proença, R. P., Curioni, C. C., Rodrigues, V. M., & Fiates, G. M. (2016). Influence of menu labeling on food choices in real-life settings: A systematic review. Nutrition Reviews, 74(8), 534–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Forde, C. G., Almiron-Roig, E., & Brunstrom, J. M. (2015). Expected satiety: Application to weight management and understanding energy selection in humans. Current Obesity Reports, 4(1), 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Friedman, R. S. (2007). Seven principles of goal activation: A systematic approach to distinguishing goal priming from priming of non-goal constructs. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(3), 211–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Forwood, S. E., Ahern, A. L., Hollands, G. J., Ng, Y. L., & Marteau, T. M. (2015). Priming healthy eating: You can’t prime all the people all of the time. Appetite, 89, 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. French, S. A., Mitchell, N. R., Wolfson, J., Harnack, L. J., Jeffery, R. W., Gerlach, A. F., et al. (2014). Portion size effects on weight gain in a free living setting. Obesity, 22(6), 1400–1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gaillet, M., Sulmont-Rossé, C., Issanchou, S., Chabanet, C., & Chambaron, S. (2013). Priming effects of an olfactory food cue on subsequent food-related behaviour. Food Quality and Preference, 30(2), 274–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gelman, A. (2017). The failure of null hypothesis significance testing when studying incremental changes, and what to do about it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(1), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gelman, A., & Geurts, H. M. (2017). The statistical crisis in science: How is it relevant to clinical neuropsychology? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 31(6–7), 1000–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldstone, A. P., Prechtl de Hernandez, C. G., Beaver, J. D., Muhammed, K., Croese, C., Bell, G., et al. (2009). Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30(8), 1625–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Golsteyn, B. H. H., Grönqvist, H., & Lindahl, L. (2014). Adolescent time preferences predict lifetime outcomes. Economic Journal, 124(580), 739–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Grabenhorst, F., Schulte, F. P., Maderwald, S., & Brand, M. (2013). Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala. NeuroImage, 74, 152–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Grech, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2015). A systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in vending machines that encourage consumers to make healthier choices. Obesity Reviews, 16(12), 1030–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. GreeNudge. (2017). From knowledge to action. The behavioral insights of food choices: Influencing consumers to make healthier decisions. Available at:
  73. Grunert, K. G., & Wills, J. M. (2007). A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels. Journal of Public Health, 15(5), 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Grunert, K. G., Fernández-Celemín, L., Wills, J. M., Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S., & Nureeva, L. (2010). Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries. Journal of Public Health, 18(3), 261–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Guthrie, J., Mancino, L., & Lin, C. J. (2015). Nudging consumers toward better food choices: Policy approaches to changing food consumption behaviors. Psychology and Marketing, 32(5), 501–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hall, K. D., Sacks, G., Chandramohan, D., Chow, C. C., Wang, Y. C., Gortmaker, S. L., et al. (2011). Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. The Lancet, 378(9793), 826–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Halpern, D. (2015). Inside the nudge unit: How small changes can make a big difference. London: WH Allen.Google Scholar
  78. Hanks, A. S., Just, D. R., & Wansink, B. (2013). Preordering school lunch encourages better food choices by children. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 673–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hansen, P. G., Skov, L. R., Jespersen, A. M., Skov, K. L., & Schmidt, K. (2016). Apples versus brownies: A field experiment in rearranging conference snacking buffets to reduce short-term energy intake. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 19(1), 122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hare, T. A., Malmaud, J., & Rangel, A. (2011). Focusing attention on the health aspects of foods changes value signals in vmPFC and improves dietary choice. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(30), 11077–11087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hawkes, C., Smith, T. G., Jewell, J., Wardle, J., Hammond, R. A., Friel, S., et al. (2015). Smart food policies for obesity prevention. The Lancet, 385(9985), 2410–2421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hawley, K. L., Roberto, C. A., Bragg, M. A., Liu, P. J., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2013). The science on front-of-package food labels. Public Health Nutrition, 16(3), 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hendren, S., & Logomarsino, J. (2017). Impact of worksite cafeteria interventions on fruit and vegetable consumption in adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 10(2), 134–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Herman, C. P. (2015). The social facilitation of eating: A review. Appetite, 86, 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Herman, C. P., & Polivy, J. (2005). Normative influences on food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 86(5), 762–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Herman, C. P., Polivy, J., Pliner, P., & Vartanian, L. R. (2015). Mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect. Physiology and Behavior, 144, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Herman, C. P., Polivy, J., Vartanian, L. R., & Pliner, P. (2016). Are large portions responsible for the obesity epidemic? Physiology and Behavior, 156, 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hersey, J. C., Wohlgenant, K. C., Arsenault, J. E., Kosa, K. M., & Muth, M. K. (2013). Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers. Nutrition Reviews, 71(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Higgs, S. (2015). Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours. Appetite, 86, 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Higgs, S. (2016). Cognitive processing of food rewards. Appetite, 104, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hill, J. O., & Peter, J. C. (1998). Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science, 280(5368), 1371–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hillier-Brown, F. C., Summerbell, C. D., Moore, H. J., Routen, A., Lake, A. A., Adams, J., et al. (2017). The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 18, 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hoefkens, C., Verbeke, W., & Van Camp, J. (2011). European consumers’ perceived importance of qualifying and disqualifying nutrients in food choices. Food Quality and Preference, 22(6), 550–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences on health behavior: A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review, 2(2), 111–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Holden, S. S., Zlatevska, N., & Dubelaar, C. (2016). Whether smaller plates reduce consumption depends on who’s serving and who’s looking: A meta-analysis. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 134–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hollands, G. J., & Marteau, T. M. (2016). Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice. Health Psychology, 35, 847–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hollands, G. J., Prestwich, A., & Marteau, T. M. (2011). Using aversive images to enhance healthy food choices and implicit attitudes: An experimental test of evaluative conditioning. Health Psychology, 30(2), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hollands, G. J., Shemilt, I., Marteau, T. M., Jebb, S. A., Kelly, M. P., Nakamura, R., et al. (2013). Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: Towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hollands, G. J., Shemilt, I., Marteau, T. M., Jebb, S. A., Lewis, H. B., Wie, Y., et al. (2015). Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(3), 2015–2018.Google Scholar
  100. Hollands, G. J., Bignardi, G., Johnston, M., Kelly, M., Ogilvie, D. B., Petticrew, M., et al. (2017). The TIPPME intervention typology for changing environments to change behaviour. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(July), 1–9.Google Scholar
  101. Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine, 2(8), 0696–0701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jeffery, R. W., Wing, R. R., Thorson, C., & Burton, L. R. (1998). Use of personal trainers and financial incentives to increase exercise in a behavioral weight-loss program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 777–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do defaults save lives? Science, 302(5649), 1338–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnson, E. J., Shu, S. B., Benedict, G. C., Dellaert, B. G. C., Fox, C., Goldstein, D. G., & Weber, E. U. (2012). Beyond nudges: Tools of a choice architecture. Marketing Letters, 23(2), 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Julia, C., & Hercberg, S. (2017). Nutri-Score: Evidence of the effectiveness of the French front-of-pack nutrition label. Ernährungs Umschau, 64(12), 181–187.Google Scholar
  106. Julia, C., Ducrot, P., Péneau, S., Deschamps, V., Méjean, C., Fézeu, L., … Kesse-Guyot, E. (2015). Discriminating nutritional quality of foods using the 5-color nutrition label in the French food market: Consistency with nutritional recommendations. Nutrition Journal, 14, 1–12.Google Scholar
  107. Julia, C., Blanchet, O., Méjean, C., Péneau, S., Ducrot, P., Allès, B., et al. (2016). Impact of the front-of-pack 5-colour nutrition label (5-CNL) on the nutritional quality of purchases: An experimental study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(101), 1–9.Google Scholar
  108. Junghans, A. F., Cheung, T. T. L., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2015). Under consumers’ scrutiny: An investigation into consumers’ attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2009). Obesity: Can behavioral economics help? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(Suppl 1), S47–S55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Just, D. R., & Price, J. (2013). Using incentives to encourage healthy eating in children. Journal of Human Resources, 48, 855–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Just, D. R., & Wansink, B. (2014). One man's tall is another man's small: How the framing of portion size influences food choice. Health Economics, 23(7), 776–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Just, D. R., Wansink, B., Mancino, L., & Guthrie, J. (2008). Behavioral economic concepts to encourage healthy eating in school cafeterias. Economic Research Report, 68, iii–i21.Google Scholar
  113. Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics. The American Economic Review, 93(5), 1449–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  115. Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kahn-Marshall, J. L., & Gallant, M. P. (2012). Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: A review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 39(6), 752–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kaur, A., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2017). A systematic review, and meta-analyses, of the impact of health-related claims on dietary choices. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kiszko, K. M., Martinez, O. D., Abrams, C., & Elbel, B. (2014). The influence of calorie labeling on food orders and consumption: A review of the literature. Journal of Community Health, 39(6), 1248–1269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Krider, R. E., Raghubir, P., & Krishna, A. (2001). Pizzas: π or square? Psychophysical biases in area comparisons. Marketing Science, 20(4), 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kunkel, D. L., Castonguay, J. S., & Filer, C. R. (2015). Evaluating industry self-regulation of food marketing to children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(2), 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Laber, E. B., & Shedden, K. (2017). Statistical significance and the dichotomization of evidence: The relevance of the ASA statement on statistical significance and p-values for statisticians. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 112(519), 902–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Laibson, D. (1997). Golden eggs and hyperbolic discounting. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2), 443–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Leng, G., Adan, R. A. H., Belot, M., Brunstrom, J. M., de Graaf, K., Dickson, S. L., et al. (2016). The determinants of food choice. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(3), 316–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Levy, D. E., Riis, J., Sonnenberg, L. M., Barraclough, S. J., & Thorndike, A. N. (2012). Food choices of minority and low-income employees: A cafeteria intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(3), 240–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Libotte, E., Siegrist, M., & Bucher, T. (2014). The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and experiment. Appetite, 82, 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. List, J. A., & Samek, A. S. (2015). The behavioralist as nutritionist: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption. Journal of Health Economics, 39, 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Littlewood, J. A., Sousa Lourenço, J., Iversen, C. L., & Hansen, G. L. (2016). Menu labelling is effective in reducing energy ordered and consumed: A systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies. Public Health Nutrition, 19(12), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Loewenstein, G. (1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65(3), 272–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Loewenstein, G., Brennan, T., & Volpp, K. G. (2007). Asymmetric paternalism to improve health behaviors. JAMA, 298(20), 2415–2417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Loewenstein, G., Asch, D. A., Friedman, J. Y., Melichar, L. A., & Volpp, K. G. (2012). Can behavioural economics make us healthier? BMJ, 344(May), e3482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Loewenstein, G., Price, J., & Volpp, K. (2016). Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating. Journal of Health Economics, 45, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Long, M. W., Tobias, D. K., Cradock, A. L., Batchelder, H., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of restaurant menu calorie labeling. American Journal of Public Health, 105(5), e11–e24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lucan, S. C., & DiNicolantonio, J. J. (2015). How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative. Public Health Nutrition, 18(4), 571–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lusk, J. L. (2014). Are you smart enough to know what to eat? A critique of behavioural economics as justification for regulation. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 41(3), 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lusk, J. L., & Ellison, B. (2013). Who is to blame for the rise in obesity? Appetite, 68, 14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ly, K., Zhao, M., & Soman, D. (2013). A practitioner’s guide to nudging. Rothman School of Management Working Paper no. 2609347.Google Scholar
  137. Lycett, K., Miller, A., Knox, A., Dunn, S., Kerr, J. A., Sung, V., & Wake, M. (2017). “Nudge” interventions for improving children’s dietary behaviors in the home: A systematic review. Obesity Medicine, 7, 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Maniadakis, N., Kapaki, V., Damianidi, L., & Kourlaba, G. (2013). A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research, 5(1), 519–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mantzari, E., Vogt, F., Shemilt, I., Wie, Y., Higgins, J. P., & Marteau, T. M. (2015). Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 75, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Marchiori, D. R., Papies, E. K., & Klein, O. (2014). The portion size effect on food intake: An anchoring and adjustment process? Appetite, 81, 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Marchiori, D. R., Adriaanse, M. A., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2017). Unresolved questions in nudging research: Putting the psychology back in nudging. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. McClelland, J., Dalton, B., Kekic, M., Bartholdy, S., Campbell, I. C., & Schmidt, U. (2016). A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity: Behavioural and neuroimaging findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 506–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McCluskey, J. J., Mittelhammer, R. C., & Asiseh, F. (2012). From default to choice: Adding healthy options to kids’ menus. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94(2), 338–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McGill, R., Anwar, E., Orton, L., Bromley, H., Lloyd-Williams, F., O’Flaherty, M., et al. (2015). Are interventions to promote healthy eating equally effective for all? Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 457.Google Scholar
  145. McShane, B. B., & Gal, D. (2017). Rejoinder: Statistical significance and the dichotomization of evidence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 112(519), 885–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Miake-Lye, I. M., Hempel, S., Shanman, R., & Shekelle, P. G. (2016). What is an evidence map? A systematic review of published evidence maps and their definitions, methods, and products. Systematic Reviews, 5(1), 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., et al. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Miller, L. M. S., & Cassady, D. L. (2015). The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use: A review of the literature. Appetite, 92, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Minas, R. K., Poor, M., Dennis, A. R., & Bartelt, V. L. (2016). A prime a day keeps calories away: The effects of supraliminal priming on food consumption and the moderating role of gender and eating restraint. Appetite, 105, 494–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mishra, A., Mishra, H., & Masters, T. M. (2012). The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: A field study. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 791–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mitchell, M. S., Goodman, J. M., Alter, D. A., John, L. K., Oh, P. I., Pakosh, M. T., et al. (2013). Financial incentives for exercise adherence in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45(5), 658–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2013). Scarcity: Why having too little means so much. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  153. Muller, L., & Prevost, M. (2016). What cognitive sciences have to say about the impacts of nutritional labelling formats. Journal of Economic Psychology, 55, 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Muller, L., Lacroix, A., Lusk, J. L., & Ruffieux, B. (2017). Distributional impacts of fat taxes and thin subsidies. Economic Journal, 127(604), 2066–2092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Münscher, R., Vetter, M., & Scheuerle, T. (2015). A review and taxonomy of choice architecture techniques. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29(5), 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. The Lancet, 6736(17), 1–16.Google Scholar
  157. Nikolaou, C. K., Hankey, C. R., & Lean, M. E. J. (2015). Calorie-labelling: Does it impact on calorie purchase in catering outlets and the views of young adults? International Journal of Obesity, 39(3), 542–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Nørnberg, T. R., Houlby, L., Skov, L. R., & Peréz-Cueto, F. J. (2016). Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: A systematic review. Perspectives in Public Health, 136(3), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. OECD. (2017). Use of behavioural insights in consumer policy. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers, no. 36. Paris: Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  160. Osei-Assibey, G., Smita, D., Macdiarmid, J., Semple, S., Reilly, J. J., Ellaway, A., et al. (2012). The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 2, e001538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Papies, E. K. (2016a). Goal priming as a situated intervention tool. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 12–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Papies, E. K. (2016b). Health goal priming as a situated intervention tool: How to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behaviour. Health Psychology Review, 10(4), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Papies, E. K., & Veling, H. (2013). Healthy dining: Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters. Appetite, 61, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Payne, C. R., Niculescu, M., Just, D. A., & Kelly, M. P. (2015). Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Perry, C., Chhatralia, K., Damesick, D., Hobden, S., & Volpe, L. (2015). Behavioural insights in health care: Nudging to reduce inefficiency and waste. London: The Health Foundation.Google Scholar
  166. Peters, J., Beck, J., Lande, J., Pan, Z., Cardel, M., Ayoob, K., et al. (2016). Using healthy defaults in Walt Disney World restaurants to improve nutritional choices. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Pliner, P. (1982). The effects of mere exposure on liking for edible substances. Appetite, 3(3), 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Pliner, P., & Mann, N. (2004). Influence of social norms and palatability on amount consumed and food choice. Appetite, 42(2), 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Powell, L. M., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2009). Food prices and obesity: Evidence and policy implications for taxes and subsidies. Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 229–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Powell, L. M., Chriqui, J. F., Khan, T., Wada, R., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2013). Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: A systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes. Obesity Reviews, 14(2), 110–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Prevost, M., Hot, P., Muller, L., Ruffieux, B., Cousin, E., Pichat, C., et al. (2017). Neural correlates of the healthiness evaluation processes of food labels. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11, 1–11.Google Scholar
  172. Purnell, J. Q., Gernes, R., Stein, R., Sherraden, M. S., & Knoblock-Hahn, A. (2014). A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(7), 1023–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Raftery, J. P. (2014). NICE’s cost-effectiveness range: Should it be lowered? PharmacoEconomics, 32(7), 613–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Reimann, M., Bechara, A., & MacInnis, D. (2015). Leveraging the Happy Meal effect: Substituting food with modest nonfood incentives decreases portion size choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21(3), 276–286.Google Scholar
  175. Reisch, L. A., & Sunstein, C. R. (2016). Do Europeans like nudges? Judgment and Decision making, 11(4), 310–325.Google Scholar
  176. Reisch, L. A., & Thøgersen, J. B. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of research on sustainable consumption. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  177. Reisch, L. A., Sunstein, C. R., & Gwozdz, W. (2017). Beyond carrots and sticks: Europeans support health nudges. Viewpoint article. Food Policy, 69, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Restrepo, B. (2017). Calorie labeling in chain restaurants and body weight: Evidence from New York. Health Economics, 26, 1191–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Richards, M. R., & Sindelar, J. L. (2013). Rewarding healthy food choices in SNAP: Behavioral economic applications. Milbank Quarterly, 91(2), 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Roberto, C. A. (2015). Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: Recent perspectives. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 2015(7), 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Robinson, T. N., & Matheson, D. M. (2015). Environmental strategies for portion control in children. Appetite, 88, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Robinson, E., Thomas, J., Aveyard, P., & Higgs, S. (2014a). What everyone else is eating: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of informational eating norms on eating behavior. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(3), 414–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., et al. (2014b). Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption. Obesity Reviews, 15(10), 812–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., et al. (2014c). Prompting healthier eating: Testing the use of health and social norm-based messages. Health Psychology, 33(9), 1057–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rock, C. L., Flatt, S. W., Sherwood, N. E., Karanja, N., Pakiz, B., & Thomson, C. A. (2010). Effect of a free prepared meal and incentivized weight loss program on weight loss and weight loss maintenance in obese and overweight women. JAMA, 304(16), 1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rogers, P. J. (2017). Food and drug addictions: Similarities and differences. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 153, 182–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Halverson, K. H., & Meengs, J. S. (2007). Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals. Appetite, 49(3), 652–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Romero, M., & Biswas, D. (2016). Healthy-left, unhealthy-right: Can displaying healthy items to the left (versus right) of unhealthy items nudge healthier choices? Journal of Consumer Research, 43(1), 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ronit, K., & Jensen, J. D. (2014). Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: A literature review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(7), 753–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Roy, R., Kelly, B., Rangan, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2015). Food environment interventions to improve the dietary behavior of young adults in tertiary education settings: A systematic literature review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(10), 1647–1681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sacco, J., Lillico, H. G., Chen, E., & Hobin, E. (2017). The influence of menu labelling on food choices among children and adolescents: A systematic review of the literature. Perspectives in Public Health, 137(3), 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Salmon, S. J., Fennis, B. M., de Ridder, D. T., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Vet, E. (2014). Health on impulse: When low self-control promotes healthy food choices. Health Psychology, 33, 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Sassi, F. (2006). Calculating QALYs, comparing QALY and DALY calculations. Health Policy and Planning, 21(5), 402–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Scheibehenne, B., Todd, P. M., & Wansink, B. (2010). Dining in the dark: The importance of visual cues for food consumption and satiety. Appetite, 55(3), 710–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Schmitt, J. (2013). Why does the minimum wage have no discernible effect on employment? Washington: Center for Economic and Policy Research.Google Scholar
  196. Schwartz, M. B., Just, D. R., Chriqui, J. F., & Ammerman, A. S. (2017). Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors. Obesity, 25, S26–S38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Seenivasan, S., & Thomas, D. (2016). Negative consequences of nutrition information disclosure on consumption behavior in quick-casual restaurants. Journal of Economic Psychology, 55, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Shafir, E. (2013). The behavioral foundations of public policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Shah, M., Schroeder, R., Winn, W., & Adams-Huet, B. (2011). A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(6), 612–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Shariff, A. F., Willard, A. K., Andersen, T., & Norenzayan, A. (2016). Religious priming: A meta-analysis with a focus on prosociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Shemilt, I., Hendry, V., & Marteau, T. M. (2017). What do we know about the effects of exposure to “low alcohol” and equivalent product labelling on the amounts of alcohol, food and tobacco people select and consume? A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Sinclair, S. E., Cooper, M., & Mansfield, E. D. (2014). The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(9), 1375–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Skov, L. R., Sousa Lourenço, J., Hansen, G. L., Mikkelsen, B. E., & Schofield, C. (2013). Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 14(3), 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sousa Lourenço, J., Ciriolo, E., Rafael Almeida, S., & Troussard, X. (2016). Behavioural insights applied to policy. European Report 2016. Available at:
  206. Spronk, I., Kullen, C., Burdon, C., & O'Connor, H. (2014). Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(10), 1713–1726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Steenhuis, I., & Poelman, M. (2017). Portion size: Latest developments and interventions. Current Obesity Reports, 6(1), 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S., & Wills, J. M. (2012). Nutrition labeling to prevent obesity: Reviewing the evidence from Europe. Current Obesity Reports, 1(3), 134–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Story, M., Kaphingst, K. M., Robinson-O'Brien, R., & Glanz, K. (2008). Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annual Review of Public Health, 29(1), 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sunstein, C. R. (2013). Simpler: The future of government. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  211. Sunstein, C. R. (2014). Nudging: A very short guide. Journal of Consumer Policy, 37(4), 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Sunstein, C. R. (2018). Misconceptions about nudges. Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, 2(1), 61–67.Google Scholar
  213. Sunstein, C. R., & Reisch, L. A. (2013). Green by default. Kyklos, 66(3), 398–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Sunstein, C. R., & Thaler, R. H. (2003). Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70(4), 1159–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sunstein, C. R., Reisch, L. A., & Rauber, J. (2017). A worldwide consensus on nudging? Not quite, but almost. Regulation & Governance. Scholar
  216. Swartz, J. J., Braxton, D., & Viera, A. J. (2011). Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: An updated systematic review of the literature. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., et al. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: Shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet, 378(9793), 804–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Symmank, C., Mai, R., Hoffmann, S., Stok, F. M., Renner, B., Lien, N., et al. (2017). Predictors of food decision making: A systematic interdisciplinary mapping (SIM) review. Appetite, 110, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Szaszi, B., Aczel, B., Pálinkás, A., Szollosi, A., & Palfi, B. (2018). A systematic scoping review of the choice architecture movement: Toward understanding when and why nudges work. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31(3), 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Tal, A., & Wansink, B. (2013). Fattening fasting: Hungry grocery shoppers buy more calories, not more food. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(12), 1146–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Taubes, G. (2013). The science of obesity: What do we really know about what makes us fat? BMJ, 346, f1050–f1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Thaler, R. H. (2015). Misbehaving: The making of behavioral economics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  223. Thaler, R. H., & Benartzi, S. (2004). Save more tomorrow™: Using behavioral economics to increase employee saving. Journal of Political Economy, 112(S1), 164–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  225. Thorndike, A. N., Sonnenberg, L., Riis, J., Barraclough, S., & Levy, D. E. (2012). A 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention to improve healthy food and beverage choices. American Journal of Public Health, 102(3), 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tsai, S. A., Lv, N., Xiao, L., & Ma, J. (2015). Gender differences in weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese adults in the United States. American Journal of Men’s Health, 10(5), 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Ueland, Ø., Cardello, A. V., Merrill, E. P., & Lesher, L. L. (2009). Effect of portion size information on food intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(1), 124–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. van Epps, E. M., Roberto, C., Park, S., Economos, C. D., & Bleich, S. N. (2016). Restaurant menu labeling policy: Review of evidence and controversies. Current Obesity Reports, 5, 72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Van Herpen, E., & van Trijp, H. C. M. (2011). Front-of-pack nutrition labels: Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints. Appetite, 57(1), 148–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Van Kleef, E., & van Trijp, H. C. M. (2018). Methodological challenges of research in nudging. In G. Ares & P. Verla (Eds.), Methods in consumer research, Vol. 1: New approaches to classic methods (pp. 329–349). Cambridge: Woodhead/Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Variyam, J. N., & Cawley, J. (2006). Nutrition labels and obesity. NBER Working Paper no. 11956.Google Scholar
  232. Vetter, M., & Kutzner, F. (2016). Nudge me if you can: How defaults and attitude strength interact to change behavior. Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology, 1(1–3), 8–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G., & Baler, R. D. (2011). Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: Implications for obesity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Wadhera, D., & Capaldi-Phillips, E. D. (2014). A review of visual cues associated with food on food acceptance and consumption. Eating Behaviors, 15(1), 132–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wansink, B., & Hanks, A. S. (2014). Calorie reductions and within-meal calorie compensation in children’s meal combos. Obesity, 22(3), 630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Wansink, B., & Just, D. R. (2015). Trayless cafeterias lead diners to take less salad and relatively more dessert. Public Health Nutrition, 18(9), 1535–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Wansink, B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2013). Portion size me: Plate-size induced consumption norms and win-win solutions for reducing food intake and waste. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19(4), 320–332.Google Scholar
  238. Wansink, B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: Why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Weingarten, E., Chen, Q., McAdams, M., Yi, J., Hepler, J., & Albarracín, D. (2016a). From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words. Psychological Bulletin, 142(5), 472–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Weingarten, E., Chen, Q., McAdams, M., Yi, J., Hepler, J., & Albarracín, D. (2016b). On priming action: Conclusions from a meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally-presented words. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. WHO. (2014). Health in all policies (HiAP). Framework for country action. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at:
  242. WHO Regional Office for Europe. (2014). European food and nutrition action plan 2015–2020. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Available at:
  243. Wills, J. M., Grunert, K. G., Fernández Celemín, L., & Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S. (2009). Do European consumers use nutrition labels? Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 20(5), 60–62.Google Scholar
  244. Wilson, A. L., Buckley, E., Buckley, J. D., & Bogomolova, S. (2016). Nudging healthier food and beverage choices through salience and priming. Evidence from a systematic review. Food Quality and Preference, 51, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Wisdom, J., Downs, J. S., & Loewenstein, G. (2010). Promoting healthy choices: Information versus convenience. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(2), 164–178.Google Scholar
  246. Young, L. R., & Nestle, M. (2002). The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. American Journal of Public Health, 92(2), 246–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Zhang, L., & Rashad, I. (2008). Obesity and time preference: The health consequences of discounting the future. Journal of Biosocial Science, 40(1), 97–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Zlatevska, N., Dubelaar, C., & Holden, S. S. (2014). Sizing up the effect of portion size on consumption: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Marketing, 78(3), 140–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management, Society and CommunicationCopenhagen Business SchoolFrederiksbergDenmark

Personalised recommendations