Advertisement

Liberalism and great upheaval: What did classical liberals do in the Tsarist Russia?

  • Leonid Krasnozhon
  • Mykola Bunyk
Original Paper
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Efficient constitutional change depends on ability of bargaining parties to overcome such inherent problems of political change as commitment and credibility (Galiani et al. in J Econ Behav Organ 103:17–38, 2014; Congleton in Perfecting parliament: constitutional reform, liberalism, and the rise of western democracy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011; Boettke and Coyne in J Inst Econ 5(1):1–23, 2009). This paper studies how constitutional bargaining leads to a negative sum-game in a transitional illiberal environment. We use a historical example of the Russian constitutional monarchy (1905–1917) to demonstrate that an exchange-based constitutional change within the king-council model leads to an inefficient outcome when bargaining parties fail to trade political authority for policy results. The historical example of the Russian constitutional monarchy shows how both radicalization of the liberal parliamentary majority and pseudo-constitutionalism of Nicholas II undermined efficiency of the legislative assembly. We also find that nationality-based politics undermined the constitutional bargaining by radicalizing both the liberal movement and the tsar.

Keywords

Liberalism Constitutional monarchy Russia Nicholas II Ukraine 

JEL Classification

B13 B15 B31 B53 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Roger Congleton and two anonymous referees for helpful comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2006). Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2012). Why nations fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York City: Random House.Google Scholar
  3. Ascher, A. (1988). The revolution of 1905: Russia in disarray. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ascher, A. (1992). The revolution of 1905: Authority restored. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Blum, J. (1945). Land tenure in the Austrian monarchy before 1848. Agricultural History, 19(2), 87–98.Google Scholar
  6. Boettke, P., & Coyne, C. (2009). The problem of credible commitment in reconstruction. Journal of Institutional Economics, 5(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Congleton, R. (2011). Perfecting parliament: Constitutional reform, liberalism, and the rise of western democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Conquest, R. (1986). Harvest of sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Drahomanov, M. ([1878] 1937a). Address to Hromada. In The selected works of Mykhaylo Drahomanov (Vol. 1). Prague: Pavlo Bogatsky. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://www.ditext.com/drahomanov/selected/hromada-u.html.
  10. Drahomanov, M. ([1880] 1937b). Little Russian internationalism. In The selected works of Mykhaylo Drahomanov (Vol. 1). Prague: Pavlo Bogatsky. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://www.ditext.com/drahomanov/selected/internationalism.html.
  11. Franko, I. ([1903] 1986). What is progress? In J. P. Kyryljuk (Eds.), The selected works of Ivan Franko (Vol. 44–47). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka Press. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://www.ukrcenter.com/Лiтepaтypa/Iвaн/Фpaнкo/25125/Щo-тaкe-пocтyп.
  12. Franko, I. (1904). History of socialist movement. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://www.i-franko.name/uk/Publicistics/1904/HistSocialist.html.
  13. Galiani, S., Torrens, G., & Yanguas, M. L. (2014). The political Coase theorem: Experimental evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 103, 17–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerschenkron, A. (1962). Economic backwardness in historical perspective: A book of essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gerschenkron, A. (1965). Agrarian policies and industrialization of Russia, 1861–1917. In H. Habakkuk, M. Postan, & J. Clapman (Eds.), Cambridge economic history of Europe (Vol. 2, Part 2). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Himka, J.-P. (1982). Young radicals and independent statehood: The idea of a Ukrainian nation-state, 1890–1895. Slavic Review, 41(2), 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kennan, G. (1968). The breakdown of the Tsarist autocracy. In R. Pipes (Ed.), Revolutionary Russia (pp. 1–25). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kistyakivsky, B. ([1899] 1996). Society and individual. In The selected works of Bogdan Kistyakivsky. Kyiv: Abris Press.Google Scholar
  19. Korros, A. (2004). The Kadet party and the elusive ideal of internal democracy. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 5(1), 136–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krawchenko, B. (1985). Social change and national consciousness in twentieth-century Ukraine. New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lenin, V. (1903). The position of the bund in the party. Iskra, 51. Retrieved October 22, from https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1903/oct/22a.htm.
  22. Markevich, A., & Zhuravskaya, E. (2018). The economics effects of the abolition of serfdom: Evidence from the Russian empire. American Economic Review, 108(4–5), 1074–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McLellan, D. (1979). Marxism after Marx. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  24. North, D., & Weingast, B. (1989). Constitution and commitment: The evolution of institutional governing public choice in seventeenth-century England. The Journal of Economic History, 49(4), 803–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pares, B. (1933). Fedor Rodichev. The Slavonic and East European Review, 12(34), 199–201.Google Scholar
  26. Petrov, F. (1994). Crowning the edifice: The Zemstvo, local self-government, and the constitutional movement, 1864–1881. In B. Eklof, J. Bushnell, & L. Zakharova (Eds.), Russia’s great reforms, 1885–1881 (pp. 197–213). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Pipes, R. (1974). Russia under the old regime. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  28. Pipes, R. (1990). The Russian revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc.Google Scholar
  29. Pipes, R. (1994). Did the Russian revolution have to happen? The American Scholar, 63(2), 215–238.Google Scholar
  30. Podemska-Mikluch, M. (2015). Elections vs political competition: The case of the Polish–Lithuanian commonwealth. The Review of Austrian Economics, 28(2), 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Przeworski, A., Alvarez, M., Cheibub, J. A., & Limongi, F. (2000). Democracy and development: Political institutions and material well-being in the world, 1950–1990. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Robbins, R. (2017). Overtaken by the night, one Russian’s journey through peace, war, revolution, and terror. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pittsburg Press.Google Scholar
  33. Rudnytsky, I. (1967). Review of Beiträge zur Geschichte und Kultur der Ukraine: Ausgewählte deutsche Schriften des revolutionären Demokraten, 1882–1915. In I. Franko, E. Winter, P. Kirchner, O. I. Bilec’kyj, & I. I. Bass (Eds.), Slavic review (Vol. 26(1), pp. 141–147). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Schumpeter, J. (1954). History of economic analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Spielvogel, J. J. (2014). Western civilization (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  36. Subtelny, O. (2009). The history of Ukraine (4th ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  37. Tomenko, M. (1996). Liberal idea in Ukraine. In O. Dergachov (Ed.), Ukrainian statehood in the twentieth century: Historical and political analysis (pp. 71–81). Kyiv: Political Thought.Google Scholar
  38. von Mises, L. (1902). Die Entwicklung des Gutsherrlich-Bäuerlichen Verhältnisses in Galizien, 1772–1848. Series: Wiener Staatswissenschaftliche Studien. Vienna: Franz Deuticke.Google Scholar
  39. von Schmoller, G. (1875). Über einige Grundfragen des Rechts und der Volkswirtschaft. Ein offenes Sendschreiben an Herrn Professor Dr. Heinrich von Treitschke. Jena: Mauke.Google Scholar
  40. Weber, M. ([1906] 1995). Russian revolutions (P. Baehr, Ed., G. Wells, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Weeks, T. (1994). Defining us and them: Poles and Russians in the “Western provinces”, 1863–1914. Slavic Review, 53(1), 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zenkovsky, A. (1986). Stolypin: Russia’s last great reformer. Princeton, NJ: Kingston Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Loyola University New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Lviv Regional Institute of Public AdministrationLvivUkraine

Personalised recommendations