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Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 1147–1151 | Cite as

Depressive Symptoms and Sexually Transmitted Disease: Evidence from a Low-Income Neighborhood of New York City

  • Boshen JiaoEmail author
  • Zafar Zafari
  • Kai Ruggeri
  • Sharifa Z. Williams
Brief Report

Abstract

We examined the association between sexually transmitted disease (STD) and depressive symptoms. Our analysis utilized the 2015 cross-sectional Washington Heights Community Survey. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the primary association between having a history of STD and patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score while adjusting for potential confounders. Then in separate models, we adjusted for the interaction of social factors with PHQ-9 score to test for modification effect on the primary association. In this low-income neighborhood, STD history was not significantly associated with PHQ-9 score in the overall logistic regression model for the primary association. However, in interaction models, STD and depressive symptoms were associated in sub-groups defined by social factors, namely being Hispanic [odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.15], foreign-born (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02–1.15), and having low to moderate social support (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02–1.15). Our results demonstrate a need for targeted interventions to be applied to vulnerable subgroups identified.

Keywords

Depressive symptoms Sexually transmitted disease Low-income neighborhood New York City 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Peter Muennig and Dr. Zohn Rosen for their insightful comments.

Funding

Funding for the authors was provided by the Dean’s Office, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The study sponsor had no role in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the manuscript; and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

The Review by and approval from the appropriate institutional and/or national ethical review committee was not needed in this study because the 2015 Washington Heights Community Survey (WHCS) dataset is publicly available: http://www.gssndi.com.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boshen Jiao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zafar Zafari
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kai Ruggeri
    • 4
  • Sharifa Z. Williams
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.The Comparative Health Outcomes, Policy and Economics (CHOICE) InstituteUniversity of Washington School of PharmacySeattleUSA
  2. 2.Global Research Analytics for Population HealthColumbia University Mailman School of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Health Services ResearchUniversity of Maryland School of PharmacyBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Policy and ManagementColumbia University Mailman School of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Social Solutions and Services ResearchNathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric ResearchOrangeburgUSA

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