Self-Esteem and HIV Infection in Morocco: Associated Factors Among People Living with HIV—Results from a Community-Based Study

  • Adeline BernierEmail author
  • Amal Benmoussa
  • Mohamed Kamal Hilali
  • Emilie Henry
  • Joanne Otis
  • Mohamed Loukid
  • Marie Préau
Original Paper


People living with HIV (PLHIV) face specific issues regarding mental quality of life (QoL), in particular self-esteem. The objective of this study was to measure self-esteem and to identify associated factors among PLHIV in Morocco. A 125-item questionnaire was administered to 300 PLHIV. The dependent variable was adapted from Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale (range 0–4). A weighted multiple linear regression was performed. The mean level of self-esteem was 2.4 ± 1.0. The factors independently associated with self-esteem were: feeling of loneliness (p = 0.001), perceived seriousness of infection (p = 0.006), thinking serostatus disclosure was a mistake (p = 0.007), thinking HIV infection will last for life (p = 0.008), sexual orientation (p = 0.050), satisfaction with sexual life (p = 0.019) and perceived treatment efficacy (p = 0.009). These results underline the need for evidence-based interventions (e.g. anti-discrimination measures, interventions to prevent social isolation of PLHIV, support in the serostatus disclosure process), in order to improve the social environment and eventually improve their self-esteem and QoL.


Self-esteem People living with HIV Morocco Sexual orientation Serostatus disclosure Discrimination 



The authors would like to thank all those living with HIV who agreed to answer the study questionnaire, and the community-based organizations teams for their involvement in the organization of data collection. This study could not have been performed without the technical support provided by Coalition Internationale Sida and the financial support provided by the French Agency of AIDS Research (ANRS) and Sidaction. The authors would also like to thank the members of the PARTAGES group for their contribution in the implementation of this project.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Coalition Internationale SidaPantinFrance
  2. 2.Association de Lutte Contre le SidaCasablancaMorocco
  3. 3.Faculty of Science SemlaliaUniversité Cadi AyyadMarrakechMorocco
  4. 4.Université du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Groupe de Recherche en Psychologie SocialeUniversité Lumière Lyon 2LyonFrance

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