Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 542–547 | Cite as

Prevalence and Determinants of PTSD 3 Years After an Earthquake in Iran

  • Hassan Rafiey
  • Fardin AlipourEmail author
  • Richard LeBeau
  • Yahya Salimi
Original Paper


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most debilitating and costly mental health problems that can develop following exposure to natural disasters. Nevertheless, much remains unknown about how to best address PTSD and other mental health needs in disaster-stricken areas, particularly in rural and under-resourced areas. The present study is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in rural areas that were affected by a destructive earthquake in Iran. The aim of the research is to explore the prevalence and determinants of PTSD among survivors 3 years after the earthquake. A multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 600 respondents between the ages of 18- and 87-years-old in affected areas. In the present sample, 224 individuals (37.3%) reported some PTSD symptoms. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of developing PTSD included being in a severely-stricken (as opposed to moderately-stricken) village and being female. However, there were no significant associations between PTSD and age groups, marital status, profession, and educational status. These results underscore the need for improved psychosocial interventions following disasters.


Iran Disaster Earthquake PTSD 



The authors would like to cordially thank all of the people who participated in this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Rafiey
    • 1
  • Fardin Alipour
    • 2
    Email author
  • Richard LeBeau
    • 3
  • Yahya Salimi
    • 4
  1. 1.Social Welfare Management Research CenterUniversity of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Social Work, Social Welfare Management Research CenterUniversity of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Social Development and Health Promotion Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical ScienceKermanshahIran

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