Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 534–541 | Cite as

Change in Mental Health Stigma After a Brief Intervention Among Internally Displaced Persons in Central Sudan

  • Zeinat SanhoriEmail author
  • Arne H. Eide
  • Touraj Ayazi
  • Ibrahimu Mdala
  • Lars Lien
Original Paper

Abstract

Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness is a worldwide phenomenon, This Longitudinal study aimed to determine the level of stigma, among the internal displaced persons in central Sudan and explore possible changes in stigma associated with an intervention. 1549 persons were interviewed using standardized stigma attitude tools. The study reveled high level of stigma among our respondents and there was no significant difference in attitudes towards mental illness observed after the intervention. The intervention was not associated with change in stigma. However, the findings can inform policy to create sustainable national mental health strategies to address the stigma.

Keywords

Stigma IDPs Mental health Sudan 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our sincere thanks go to all those who contributed to this study, especially the IDPs in the two study areas, and the local community committees for their collaboration. Our gratitude is also extended to the clinical psychologists who collected the data and contributed to the community psycho-education and the Khartoum University staff members, the Ministry of Health at both the federal and state level and Prudence and Grace who assisted in improving the language in the manuscript.

Funding

The project was funded by Oslo University: Division of Mental Health and addiction, Quota scheme and Faculty of Medicine.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest stated.

Informed Consent

Written and voluntary informed consent was obtained from all participants.

References

  1. Adebowale, T., & Ogunlesi, A. (1998). Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 28(1–2), 35–41.Google Scholar
  2. Adewuya, A. O., & Makanjuola, R. O. (2008). Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42(5), 389–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angermeyer, M. C., & Dietrich, S. (2006). Public beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness: A review of population studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113(3), 163–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayazi, T., Lien, L., Eide, A., Shadar, E. J., & Hauff, E. (2014). Community attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in South Sudan: A survey from a post-conflict setting with no mental health services. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(5), 771–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, A. (1992). Prognosis for schizophrenia in the Third World: A reevaluation of cross-cultural research. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 16(1), 53–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Corrigan, P. W., Druss, B. G., & Perlick, D. A. (2014). The impact of mental illness stigma on seeking and participating mental health care. Psychological Science in Public Interest, 15(2), 37–70.Google Scholar
  7. Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S. B., Michaels, P. J., Rafacz, J. D., & Rüsch, N. (2012). Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry, 1(1), 16–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Crabb, J., Stewart, R. C., Kokota, D., Masson, N., Chabunya, S., & Krishnadas, R. (2012). Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Economou, M., Peppou, L. E., Louki, E., & Stefanis, C. N. (2012). Medical students’ beliefs and attitudes towards schizophrenia before and after undergraduate psychiatric training in Greece. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 66(1), 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans-Lacko, S., Henderson, C., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Public knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding people with mental illness in England 2009–2012. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(s55), s51–s57.Google Scholar
  12. Fabrega, H. (1991). Psychiatric stigma in non-Western societies. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 32(6), 534–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaebel, W., Baumann, A., Witte, A. M., & Zaeske, H. (2002). Public attitudes towards people with mental illness in six German cities. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 252(6), 278–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gureje, O., Lasebikan, V. O., Ephraim-Oluwanuga, O., Olley, B. O., & Kola, L. (2005). Community study of knowledge of and attitude to mental illness in Nigeria. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(5), 436–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hinshaw, S. P., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). Stigma and mental disorder: Conceptions of illness, public attitudes, personal disclosure, and social policy. Development and Psychopathology, 12(04), 555–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hugo, C. J., Boshoff, D. E., Traut, A., Zungu-Dirwayi, N., & Stein, D. J. (2003). Community attitudes toward and knowledge of mental illness in South Africa. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(12), 715–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jorm, A. F., & Oh, E. (2009). Desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(3), 183–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kadri, N., Manoudi, F., Berrada, S., & Moussaoui, D. (2004). Stigma impact on Moroccan families of patients with schizophrenia. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(9), 625–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kakuma, R., Kleintjes, S., Lund, C., Drew, N., Green, A., & Flisher, A. (2010). Mental Health Stigma: What is being done to raise awareness and reduce stigma in South Africa? African Journal of Psychiatry, 13(2), 116–124.Google Scholar
  20. Lemeshow, S., & Hosmer Jr, D. W. (2005). Logistic regression. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, 4. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470011815.b2a10029.
  21. Mascayano, F., Armijo, J. E., & Yang, L. H. (2015). Addressing stigma relating to mental illness in low- and middle-income countries. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6, 38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ohaeri, J. U., & Fido, A. A. (2001). The opinion of caregivers on aspects of schizophrenia and major affective disorders in a Nigerian setting. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36(10), 493–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Organization, W. H. (2001). The World Health Report 2001: Mental health: new understanding, new hope, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  24. Read, J., Haslam, N., Sayce, L., & Davies, E. (2006). Prejudice and schizophrenia: A review of the ‘mental illness is an illness like any other’approach. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(5), 303–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Salah, T. T. M., Abdelrahman, A., Lien, L., Eide, A. H., Martinez, P., & Hauff, E. (2013). The mental health of internally displaced persons: An epidemiological study of adults in two settlements in Central Sudan. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59(8), 782–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sartorius, N. (2007). A new way of reducing the prevalence of mental disorders?. World Psychiatry, 6(3), 162–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Shibre, T., Negash, A., Kullgren, G., Kebede, D., Alem, A., Fekadu, A., Fekadu, D., Medhin, G., & Jacobsson, L. (2001). Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36(6), 299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Shurka, E. (1983). Attitudes of Israeli Arabs towards the mentally ill. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 29(2), 101–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Stuart, H., & Arboleda-Florez, J. (2001). Community attitudes toward people with schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry, 46(3), 245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Rose, D., Sartorius, N., Leese, M., & Group, I. S. (2009). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 373(9661), 408–415.Google Scholar
  31. Van Ginneken, N., Tharyan, P., Lewin, S., Rao, G. N., Meera, S., Pian, J., Chandrashekar, S., & Patel, V. (2013). Non-specialist health worker interventions for the care of mental, neurological and substance-abuse disorders in low-and middle-income countries. The Cochrane Library.Google Scholar
  32. WHO, R. O. (2009). Sudan, WHO-AIMS Report on Mental health System. Cheneva.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeinat Sanhori
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Arne H. Eide
    • 3
  • Touraj Ayazi
    • 2
  • Ibrahimu Mdala
    • 4
  • Lars Lien
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Federal Ministry of HealthKhartoumSudan
  2. 2.Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.SINTEF, Technology and SocietyOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and SocietyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  5. 5.Department of Public HealthInnlandet University CollageElverumNorway
  6. 6.Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health DisordersInnlandet Hospital TrustHamarNorway

Personalised recommendations