National, Sex and Academic Discipline Difference in Smartphone Addiction: A Study of Students in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan

  • Ismael Salamah Albursan
  • Mohammad Farhan Al Qudah
  • Edward Dutton
  • Elsayed Mohammed Abu Hashem Hassan
  • Salaheldin Farah Attallah BakhietEmail author
  • Ali A. Alfnan
  • Suliman S. Aljomaa
  • Heba Ibraheem Hammad
Original Paper


There are an increasing number of studies on smartphone addiction (SA) among students, and also a number of cross-cultural ones. We add to this body of research by presenting, for the first time, a cross-cultural study comparing students in four Middle Eastern countries: Sudan, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. In this context, we also attempt to replicate findings—in other studies—that there are differences in smartphone addiction prevalence along the lines of sex, culture and subject of study. These findings were indeed replicated in a Middle Eastern context. We found significant differences between the Jordanian sample and the other three samples, with Jordanians displaying higher SA. The Sudanese displayed higher SA than the Yemenis, and the Saudis higher than the Sudanese or the Yemeni. We also found that females displayed greater SA than males and humanities students greater SA than science students.


Smartphone Addiction Middle Eastern Arabic 



We would like to acknowledge the advice of Prof. Dimitri Van der Linden. The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through Research Group No. RG-1438-064.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no potential conflict of interest pertaining this submission to Current Psychology.

Informed Consent

All participants were provided informed consent prior to participation to the study. All study procedures were conducted in accordance with appropriate institutional ethical review boards.

Supplementary material

10597_2019_368_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 23 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ismael Salamah Albursan
    • 1
  • Mohammad Farhan Al Qudah
    • 1
  • Edward Dutton
    • 2
  • Elsayed Mohammed Abu Hashem Hassan
    • 1
  • Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhiet
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ali A. Alfnan
    • 1
  • Suliman S. Aljomaa
    • 1
  • Heba Ibraheem Hammad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, College of EducationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Ulster Institute for Social ResearchLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Special Education, College of EducationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, College of EducationPrincess Alia, Al-Balqa’a UniversityAmmanJordan

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