Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 9–23 | Cite as

Modeling Health Disparities and Outcomes in Disenfranchised Populations

  • Emily J. HauensteinEmail author
  • Rachael S. Clark
  • Elizabeth I. Merwin
Original Paper
  • 316 Downloads

Abstract

The Health Disparities and Outcomes (HDO) model originally created to explain the complexity of obtaining healthcare in rural settings has been revised and updated using emerging theoretical models of adversity and inequity and two decades of empirical work by the authors. With a strong orientation to explaining population-based health inequities, the HDO is applied to individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI), to explain their high rates of morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Individual-, community-, and system-level factors that reflect an understanding of life-long risk, accrued hazards associated with multiple and intersecting disadvantages, and difficulty obtaining healthcare that meets accepted standards are described. The revised HDO can be applied to populations with disproportionate health challenges to identify multi-level factors that affect illness trajectory and overall health outcomes.

Keywords

Health disparities Health outcomes Intersectionality Mental illness Community characteristics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities under award number R01MD010354. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Acharya, B., Hirachan, S., Mandel, J. S., & van Dyke, C. (2016). The mental health education gap among primary care providers in Rural Nepal. Academic Psychiatry, 40(4), 667–671.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, M. L., Cook, B. L., Carson, N., Interian, A., La Roche, M., & Alegría, M. (2017). Patient-provider therapeutic alliance contributes to patient activation in community mental health clinics. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 44(4), 431–440.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-015-0655-8.Google Scholar
  3. Aschbrenner, K. A., Naslund, J. A., Gill, L., Hughes, T., O’Malley, A. J., Bartels, S. J., & Brunette, M. F. (2017). Qualitative analysis of social network influences on quitting smoking among individuals with serious mental illness. Journal of Mental Health.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2017.1340600.Google Scholar
  4. Bachrach, L. L. (1983). Psychiatric services in rural areas: A sociological overview. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34(3), 215–226.Google Scholar
  5. Balogun, S. A., Yusuff, H. A., Yusuf, K. Q., Al-Shenqiti, A. M., Balogun, M. T., & Tettey, P. (2017). Maternal education and child immunization: The mediating roles of maternal literacy and socioeconomic status. Pan African Medical Journal, 26, 217.  https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.26.217.11856.Google Scholar
  6. Baum, F., & Palmer, C. (2002). ‘Opportunity structures’: Urban landscape, social capital and health promotion in Australia. Health Promotion International, 17(4), 351–361.Google Scholar
  7. Beach, M. C., Saha, S., Korthuis, P. T., Sharp, V., Cohn, J., Wilson, I., … Moore, R. (2010). Differences in patient-provider communication for Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic white patients in HIV care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(7), 682–687.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1310-4.Google Scholar
  8. Bellamy, C. D., Flanagan, E. H., Costa, M., O’Connell-Bonarrigo, M., Tana Le, T., Guy, K., … Steiner, J. L. (2017). Barriers and facilitators of healthcare for people with mental illness: Why integrated patient centered healthcare is necessary. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 37(6), 421–428.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2016.1162882.Google Scholar
  9. Ben Natan, M., & Hochman, O. (2017). Patient-centered care in healthcare and its implementation in nursing. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 10(1), 596–600.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, M. L. (2003). Health care cost, quality, and outcomes: ISPOR book of terms. Lawrenceville: International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.Google Scholar
  11. Berwick, D. M., Nolan, T. W., & Whittington, J. (2008). The triple aim: Care, health, and cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759–769.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.3.759.Google Scholar
  12. Bird, C. E., Lang, M. E., & Rieker, P. P. (2010). Changing gendered patterns of morbidity and mortality. In E. Kuhlmann, E. Annandale (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of gender and health care (pp. 125–141). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Bird, C. E., & Rieker, P. P. (2008). Gender and health: The effects of constrained choices and social policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Blanchard, J., & Lurie, N. (2004). RESPECT: Patient reports of disrespect in the health care setting and its impact on care. Journal of Family Practice, 53(9), 721–730.Google Scholar
  15. Blixen, C. E., Kanuch, S., Perzynski, A. T., Thomas, C., Dawson, N. V., & Sajatovic, M. (2016). Barriers to self-management of serious mental illness and diabetes. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(2), 194–204.Google Scholar
  16. Blythe, J., & White, J. (2012). Role of the mental health nurse towards physical health care in serious mental illness: An integrative review of 10 years of UK literature. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 193–201.Google Scholar
  17. Bock, G., & Whelan, J. & Ciba Foundation (1991). The childhood environment and adult disease. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Borba, C. P., DePadilla, L., McCarty, F. A., von Esenwein, S. A., Druss, B. G., & Sterk, C. E. (2012). A qualitative study examining the perceived barriers and facilitators to medical healthcare services among women with a serious mental illness. Womens Health Issues, 22(2), e217–e224.Google Scholar
  19. Boscoe, F. P. (2011). Geographic proximity to treatment for early stage breast cancer and likelihood of mastectomy. Breast, 20(4), 324–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2011.02.020.Google Scholar
  20. Bradshaw, T., & Pedley, R. (2012). Evolving role of mental health nurses in the physical health care of people with serious mental health illness. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 266–273.Google Scholar
  21. Braveman, P., & Barclay, C. (2009). Health disparities beginning in childhood: A life-course perspective. Pediatrics, 124(Suppl 3), 163–175.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-1100D.Google Scholar
  22. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513–531.Google Scholar
  23. Burton, L. M., Lichter, D. T., Baker, R. S., & Eason, J. M. (2013). Inequality, family processes, and health in the “New” Rural America. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(8), 1128–1151.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213487348.Google Scholar
  24. Cabassa, L. J., Gomes, A. P., Meyreles, Q., Capitelli, L., Younge, R., Dragatsi, D., … Lewis-Fern·ndez, R. (2014). Primary health care experiences of hispanics with serious mental illness: A mixed-methods study. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41(6), 724–736.Google Scholar
  25. Calkins, L. E., Michelson, I. R., & Corso, A. S. (2013). Provider proximity as a predictor of referral rate and success. Psychological Services, 10(4), 395–400.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029988.Google Scholar
  26. Calo, W. A., Cubillos, L., Breen, J., Hall, M., Rojas, K. F., Mooneyham, R., … Reuland, D. S. (2015). Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with patient registration systems and their interactions with clinic front office staff: An exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina. BMC Health Services Research, 15, 570.Google Scholar
  27. Carroll, J. E., Diez-Roux, A. V., Adler, N. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2013). Socioeconomic factors and leukocyte telomere length in a multi-ethnic sample: Findings from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 28, 108–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.10.024.Google Scholar
  28. Carter, A., Greene, S., Nicholson, V., O’Brien, N., Dahlby, J., de Pokomandy, A., … Team, C. R. (2016). “It’s a very isolating world’: The journey to HIV care for women living with HIV in British Columbia, Canada. Gender Place and Culture, 23(7), 941–954.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369x.2015.1073701.Google Scholar
  29. Castner, J., Wu, Y.-W. B., Mehrok, N., Gadre, A., & Hewner, S. (2015). Frequent emergency department utilization and behavioral health diagnoses. Nursing Research, 64(1), 3–12.  https://doi.org/10.1097/nnr.0000000000000065.Google Scholar
  30. Cefalu, W. T. (2017). Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 40(1), S120–S127.Google Scholar
  31. Chee Khoon, C. (2009). Choosing health, constrained choices. Global Health Promotion, 16(4), 54–57.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975909348131.Google Scholar
  32. Cheng, T. L., & Solomon, B. S. (2014). Translating life course theory to clinical practice to address health disparities. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 389–395.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-013-1279-9.Google Scholar
  33. Chhabra, K. R., Pollak, K. I., Lee, S. J., Back, A. L., Goldman, R. E., & Tulsky, J. A. (2013). Physician communication styles in initial consultations for hematological cancer. Patient Education and Counseling, 93(3), 573–578.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2013.08.023.Google Scholar
  34. Chin, M. H., Zhang, J. X., & Merrell, K. (1998). Diabetes in the African-American Medicare population: Morbidity, quality of care, and resource utilization. Diabetes Care, 21(7), 1090–1095.Google Scholar
  35. Chronister, J., Chou, C.-C., & Liao, H.-Y. (2013). The role of stigma, coping, and social support in mediating the effect of social stigma on internalized stigma, mental health recovery, and quality of life among people with Serious Mental Illness. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(5), 582–600.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21558.Google Scholar
  36. Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilient functioning in maltreated children–past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(4), 402–422.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02608.x.Google Scholar
  37. Clarke, C. A., Miller, T., Chang, E. T., Yin, D. X., Cockburn, M., & Gomez, S. L. (2010). Racial and social class gradients in life expectancy in contemporary California. Social Science & Medicine, 70(9), 1373–1380.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.003.Google Scholar
  38. Clausen, W., Watanabe-Galloway, S., Bill Baerentzen, M., & Britigan, D. H. (2016). Health literacy among people with serious mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(4), 399–405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9951-8.Google Scholar
  39. Cole, K. O. W., Gudzune, K. A., Bleich, S. N., Cheskin, L. J., Bennett, W. L., Cooper, L. A., & Roter, D. L. (2017). Providing prenatal care to pregnant women with overweight or obesity: Differences in provider communication and ratings of the patient-provider relationship by patient body weight. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(6), 1103–1110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2016.12.030.Google Scholar
  40. Collins, E., Tranter, S., & Irvine, F. (2012). The physical health of the seriously mentally ill: An overview of the literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19(7), 638–646.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2011.01831.x.Google Scholar
  41. Corrigan, P., & Rüsch, N. (2002). Mental illness stereotypes and clinical care: Do people avoid treatment because of stigma? American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 6(3), 312–334.Google Scholar
  42. Cox, K., Mahone, I., & Merwin, E. (2008). Improving the quality of rural nursing care. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 26, 175–194.Google Scholar
  43. Crisp, A. H., Gelder, M. G., Rix, S., Meltzer, H. I., & Rowlands, O. J. (2000). Stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 4–7.Google Scholar
  44. Cubanski, J., & Neuman, P. (2010). Medicare doesn’t work as well for younger, disabled beneficiaries as it does for older enrollees. Health Affairs, 29(9), 1725–1733.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0962.Google Scholar
  45. Cummins, S., Curtis, S., Diez-Roux, A. V., & Macintyre, S. (2007). Understanding and representing ‘place’ in health research: A relational approach. Social Science & Medicine, 65(9), 1825–1838.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.036.Google Scholar
  46. Dahlem, C. H., Villarruel, A. M., & Ronis, D. L. (2015). African American women and prenatal care: Perceptions of patient-provider interaction. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 37(2), 217–235.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945914533747.Google Scholar
  47. Davies, B., Steele, R., Krueger, G., Albersheim, S., Baird, J., Bifirie, M., … Zhao, Y. (2017). Best practice in provider/parent interaction. Qualitative Health Research, 27(3), 406–420.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316664712.Google Scholar
  48. De Hert, M., Cohen, D., Bobes, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M., Leucht, S., Ndetei, D. M., … Correll, C. U. (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level. World Psychiatry, 10(2), 138–151.Google Scholar
  49. Degenholtz, H. B., Park, M., Kang, Y. H., & Nadash, P. (2016). Variations among medicare beneficiaries living in different settings: Demographics, health status, and service use. Research on Aging, 38(5), 602–616.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027515598557.Google Scholar
  50. DeGuzman, P. B., Merwin, E. I., & Bourguignon, C. (2013). Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods. Public Health Nursing, 30(6), 478–490.  https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12051.Google Scholar
  51. Detz, A., Mangione, C. M., de Jaimes, F. N., Noguera, C., Morales, L. S., Tseng, C. H., & Moreno, G. (2014). Language concordance, interpersonal care, and diabetes self-care in Rural Latino patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(12), 1650–1656.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-014-3006-7.Google Scholar
  52. Dossett, M. L., Mu, L., Davis, R. B., Bell, I. R., Lembo, A. J., Kaptchuk, T. J., & Yeh, G. Y. (2015). Patient-provider interactions affect symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease: A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0136855.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136855.Google Scholar
  53. Drapalski, A. L., Milford, J., Goldberg, R. W., Brown, C. H., & Dixon, L. B. (2008). Perceived barriers to medical care and mental health care among veterans with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 59(8), 921–924.Google Scholar
  54. Druss, B. G., Zhao, L., Von Esenwein, S., Morrato, E. H., & Marcus, S. C. (2011). Understanding excess mortality in persons with Mental Illness 17-year follow up of a nationally representative US survey. Medical Care, 49(6), 599–604.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e31820bf86e.Google Scholar
  55. Ehrlich, C., Kendall, E., Frey, N., Kisely, S., & Crowe, E. (2014). Improving the physical health of people with severe mental illness: Boundaries of care provision. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 23(3), 243–251.  https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12050.Google Scholar
  56. Elder, G. H. Jr. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Society for Research in Child Development, 69(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  57. Ellis, B. H., Lincoln, A. K., Charney, M. E., Ford-Paz, R., Benson, M., & Strunin, L. (2010). Mental health service utilization of Somali adolescents: Religion, community, and school as gateways to healing. Transcultural Psychiatry, 47(5), 789–811.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461510379933.Google Scholar
  58. Entwistle, V. A., Carter, S. M., Cribb, A., & McCaffery, K. (2010). Supporting patient autonomy: The importance of clinician-patient relationships. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(7), 741–745.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-010-1292-2.Google Scholar
  59. Epstein, F. H. (1996). Cardiovascular disease epidemiology: A journey from the past into the future. Circulation, 93(9), 1755–1764.Google Scholar
  60. Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2010). Multiple risk exposure as a potential explanatory mechanism for the socioeconomic status-health gradient. In N. E. Adler & J. Stewart (Eds.), Biology of disadvantage: Socioeconomic status and health (Vol. 1186, pp. 174–189). San Francisco: University of California.Google Scholar
  61. Fox, J., Merwin, E., & Blank, M. (1995). De Facto mental health services in the Rural South. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6(4), 434–468.  https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2010.0003.Google Scholar
  62. Frohlich, K. L., Corin, E., & Potvin, L. (2001). A theoretical proposal for the relationship between context and disease. Sociology of Health & Illness, 23(6), 776–797.Google Scholar
  63. Galvan, F. H., Bogart, L. M., Klein, D. J., Wagner, G. J., & Chen, Y. T. (2017). Medical mistrust as a key mediator in the association between perceived discrimination and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive Latino men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-017-9843-1.Google Scholar
  64. Gerwing, J., Indseth, T., & Gulbrandsen, P. (2016). A microanalysis of the clarity of information in physicians’ and patients’ discussions of treatment plans with and without language barriers. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(4), 522–529.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.10.012.Google Scholar
  65. Gold, M. R., Stevenson, D., & Fryback, D. G. (2002). HALYs and QALYs and DALYs, oh my: Similarities and differences in summary measures of population health. Annual Review of Public Health, 23(1), 115–134.Google Scholar
  66. Graumlich, J. F., Wang, H., Madison, A., Wolf, M. S., Kaiser, D., Dahal, K., & Morrow, D. G. (2016). Effects of a patient-provider, collaborative, medication-planning tool: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016(9), 1–16.Google Scholar
  67. Grimes, C. E., Bowman, K. G., Dodgion, C. M., & Lavy, C. B. (2011). Systematic review of barriers to surgical care in low-income and middle-income countries. World Journal of Surgery, 35(5), 941–950.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-011-1010-1.Google Scholar
  68. Haas, S. (2008). Trajectories of functional health: The ‘long arm’ of childhooc health and socioeconomic factors. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 849–861.Google Scholar
  69. Halfon, N. (2012). Addressing health inequalities in the US: A life course health development approach. Social Science & Medicine, 74(5), 671–673.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.12.016.Google Scholar
  70. Halfon, N., & Hochstein, M. (2002). Life course health development: An integrated framework for developing health, policy, and research. Milbank Quarterly, 80(3), 433–479.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.00019.Google Scholar
  71. Hall, J. A., Epstein, A. M., DeCiantis, M. L., & McNeil, B. J. (1993). Physicians’ liking for their patients: More evidence for the role of affect in medical care. Health Psychology, 12, 140–146.Google Scholar
  72. Hamann, J., Leucht, S., & Kissling, W. (2003). Shared decision making in psychiatry. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 107(6), 403–409.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.00130.x.Google Scholar
  73. Hancock, A. (2007). Intersectionality as a normative and empirical paradigm. Politics and Gender, 3(2), 248–253.Google Scholar
  74. Hankivsky, O., Reid, C., Cormier, R., Varcoe, C., Clark, N., Benoit, C., & Brotman, S. (2010). Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women’s health research. International Journal for Equity in Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-9-5.Google Scholar
  75. Hanrahan, N. P., Rolin-Kenny, D., Roman, J., Kumar, A., Aiken, L., & Blank, M. (2011). Promoting self-care management among persons with serious mental illness and HIV. Home Health Care Management and Practice, 23(6), 421–427.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1084822311405457.Google Scholar
  76. Happell, B., Scott, D., Platania-Phung, C., & Nankivell, J. (2012). Should we or shouldn’t we? Mental health nurses’ views on physical health care of mental health consumers. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 202–210.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2011.00799.x.Google Scholar
  77. Hargraves, I., LeBlanc, A., Shah, N. D., & Montori, V. M. (2016). Shared decision making: The need for patient-clinician conversation, not just information. Health Affairs, 35(4), 627–629.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1354.Google Scholar
  78. Hauenstein, E. J. (1996). A nursing practice paradigm for depressed rural women: Theoretical basis. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 10(5), 283–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0883-9417(96)80037-9.Google Scholar
  79. Hauenstein, E. J. (2003). No comfort in the Rural South: Women living depressed. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 17(1), 3–11.Google Scholar
  80. Hauenstein, E. J. (2008). Building the rural mental health system: From De Facto system to quality care. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 26, 143–173.Google Scholar
  81. Hauenstein, E. J. (2012). Women and depression: Theoretical perspectives and research outcomes. In J. J. Fitzpatrick & M. W. Kazer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of nursing research (3rd ed., pp. 119–122). New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  82. Hauenstein, E. J., & Peddada, S. D. (2007). Prevalence of major depressive episodes in Rural Women using primary care. Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved, 18(1), 185–202.Google Scholar
  83. Hauenstein, E. J., Petterson, S., Merwin, E., Rovnyak, V., Heise, B., & Wagner, D. (2006). Rurality, gender, and mental health treatment. Family & Community Health, 29(3), 169–185.Google Scholar
  84. Hauenstein, E. J., Petterson, S., Rovnyak, V., Merwin, E., Heise, B., & Wagner, D. (2007). Rurality and mental health treatment. Administration and Policy in Mental Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-006-0105-8.Google Scholar
  85. Hausmann, L. R. M., Hannon, M. J., Kresevic, D. M., Hanusa, B. H., Kwoh, C. K., & Ibrahim, S. A. (2011). Impact of perceived discrimination in health care on patient-provider communication. Medical Care, 49(7), 626–633.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e318215d93c.Google Scholar
  86. Haynes, T. F., Cheney, A. M., Sullivan, J. G., Bryant, K., Curran, G. M., Olson, M., … Reaves, C. (2017). Addressing mental health needs: Perspectives of African Americans living in the Rural South. Psychiatric Services, 68(6), 573–578.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201600208.Google Scholar
  87. Haywood, C., Lanzkron, S., Bediako, S., Strouse, J. J., Haythornthwaite, J., Carroll, C. P., … Investigators, I. (2014). Perceived discrimination, patient trust, and adherence to medical recommendations among persons with sickle cell disease. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(12), 1657–1662.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-014-2986-7.Google Scholar
  88. Herd, P., Goesling, B., & House, J. S. (2007). Socioeconomic position and health: The differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(3), 223–238.Google Scholar
  89. Hill, S. E., Bell, C., Bowie, J. V., Kelley, E., Furr-Holden, D., LaVeist, T. A., & Thorpe, R. J. (2017). Differences in obesity among men of diverse racial and ethnic background. American Journal of Mens Health, 11(4), 984–989.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988315580348.Google Scholar
  90. Hudelson, P. (2005). Improving patient-provider communication: Insights from interpreters. Family Practice, 22(3), 311–316.  https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmi015.Google Scholar
  91. Hughes, R., & United States (2008). Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.Google Scholar
  92. Hunt, S. C., Chen, W., Gardner, J. P., Kimura, M., Srinivasan, S. R., Eckfeldt, J. H., … Aviv, A. (2008). Leukocyte telomeres are longer in African Americans than in Whites: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study and the Bogalusa Heart Study. Aging Cell, 7(4), 451–458.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-9726.2008.00397.x.Google Scholar
  93. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  94. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2006). Improving the quality of health care for mental and substance-use conditions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  95. Iturralde, E., Weissberg-Benchell, J., & Hood, K. K. (2016). Avoidant coping and diabetes-related distress: Pathways to adolescents’ Type 1 diabetes outcomes. Health Psychology, 36(3), 236–244.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000445.Google Scholar
  96. Jackson, C. S., Oman, M., Patel, A. M., & Vega, K. J. (2016). Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 7(Suppl 1), 32–43.  https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2015.039.Google Scholar
  97. Jameson, J. P., & Blank, M. (2010). Diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety in rural and nonrural primary care: National survey results. Psychiatric Services, 61(6), 624–627.Google Scholar
  98. Jayasinghe, U. W., Harris, M. F., Parker, S. M., Litt, J., van Driel, M., & Mazza, D., … On behalf of the Preventive Evidence into Practice Partnership (2016). The impact of health literacy and life style risk factors on health-related quality of life of Australian patients. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14, 68.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0471-1. G.Google Scholar
  99. Jochems, E. C., van Dam, A., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Scheffer, S. C., van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. M., & Mulder, N. L. (2016). Different perspectives of clinicians and patients with severe mental illness on motivation for treatment. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 23(5), 438–451.Google Scholar
  100. Kane, C. F., Thompson-Heisterman, A., Hinton, I. D., Burkett, B. J., Merwin, E., & Chen, D. (2001). In Outcomes for patients discharged from state psychiatric inpatient care. Charlottesville: Report prepared for Office of the Inspector General, Southeastern Rural Mental Health Research Center, University of Virginia Health System.Google Scholar
  101. Kang, J. S., Kim, E., Park, J., Medalia, A., & Choi, K.-H. (2017). The role of clinician in learning and motivation during cognitive remediation for people with severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 43(1), S215.Google Scholar
  102. Kaplan, R. M., Howard, V. J., Safford, M. M., & Howard, G. (2015). Educational attainment and longevity: Results from the REGARDS US national cohort study of blacks and whites. Annals of Epidemiology, 25(5), 323–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.01.017.Google Scholar
  103. Kawatkar, A. A., Knight, T. K., Moss, R. A., Sikirica, V., Chu, L. H., Hodgkins, P., … Nichol, M. B. (2014). Impact of mental health comorbidities on health care utilization and expenditure in a large US managed care adult population with ADHD. Value in Health, 17(6), 661–668.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.7014.06.002.Google Scholar
  104. Kindig, D. A. (2007). Understanding population health terminology. The Milbank Quarterly, 85(1), 139–161.Google Scholar
  105. Kruse, R. L., Olsberg, J. E., Oliver, D. P., Shigaki, C. L., Vetter-Smith, M. J., & LeMaster, J. W. (2013). Patient-provider communication about diabetes self-care activities. Family Medicine, 45(5), 319–322.Google Scholar
  106. Kuh, D., & Ben-Shlomo, Y. (2004). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Kutner, M., Greenburg, E., Jin, Y., & Pausen, C. (2006). Health literacy of America’s adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Washington: US Department of Education. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?db=ehh&jid=%223GV1%22&scope=site.
  108. Kwon, T. Y. (2015). Identifying depressive symptom trajectory groups among Korean adults and psychosocial factors as group determinants. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61, 394–403.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764015573847.Google Scholar
  109. Laursen, T. M., Musliner, K. L., Benros, M. E., Vestergaard, M., & Munk-Olsen, T. (2016). Mortality and life expectancy in persons with severe unipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 193, 203–207.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.067.Google Scholar
  110. Lawrence, D., & Kisely, S. (2010). Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24(Suppl 4), 61–68.Google Scholar
  111. Leung, J., Smith, A., Atherton, I., & McLaughlin, D. (2016). “Everybody knows everybody else’s business"—Privacy in Rural communities. Journal of Cancer Education, 31(4), 811–812.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-015-0862-8.Google Scholar
  112. Levesque, J. F., Harris, M. F., & Russell, G. (2013). Patient-centred access to health care: Conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. International Journal of Equity in Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-12-18.Google Scholar
  113. Linz, S. J., & Sturm, B. A. (2013). The phenomenon of social isolation in the severely mentally ill. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 49(4), 243–254.Google Scholar
  114. Liu, N. H., Daumit, G. L., Dua, T., Aquila, R., Charlson, F., Cuijpers, P., … Saxena, S. (2017). Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders: A multilevel intervention framework and priorities for clinical practice, policy and research agendas. World Psychiatry, 16(1), 30–40.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20384.Google Scholar
  115. Ljungqvist, I., Topor, A., Forssell, H., Svensson, I., & Davidson, L. (2016). Money and mental illness: A study of the relationship between poverty and serious psychological problems. Community Mental Health Journal, 52(7), 842–850.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9950-9.Google Scholar
  116. Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 434–445.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2639.Google Scholar
  117. Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A., & Cummins, S. (2002). Place effects on health: How can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them? Social Science & Medicine, 55(1), 125–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00214-3.Google Scholar
  118. Mason, M. J., Korpela, K., Mennis, J., Coatsworth, J. D., Valente, T. W., Pomponio, A., & Pate, P. A. (2010). Patterns of place based self regulation and associated mental health of urban adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 155–171.Google Scholar
  119. Matthias, M. S., Parpart, A. L., Nyland, K. A., Huffman, M. A., Stubbs, D. L., Sargent, C., & Bair, M. J. (2010). The patient-provider relationship in chronic pain care: Providers’ perspectives. Pain Medicine, 11(11), 1688–1697.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00980.x.Google Scholar
  120. Mayberry, R. M., Nicewander, D. A., Qin, H., & Ballard, D. J. (2006). Improving quality and reducing inequities: A challenge in achieving best care. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 19(2), 103–118.Google Scholar
  121. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease—Allostasis and allostatic load. In S. M. McCann, J. M. Lipton, E. M. Sternberg, G. P. Chrousos, P. W. Gold & C. C. Smith (Eds.), Neuroimmunomodulation: Molecular aspects, integrative systems, and clinical advances (Vol. 840, pp. 33–44). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  122. Meeusen, A. J., & Porter, R. (2015). Patient-reported use of personalized video recordings to improve neurosurgical patient-provider communication. Cureus, 7(6), e273.  https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.273.Google Scholar
  123. Mehta, P. K., Wei, J., & Wenger, N. K. (2015). Ischemic heart disease in women: A focus on risk factors. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 25(2), 140–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2014.10.005.Google Scholar
  124. Merwin, E., Hinton, I., Dembling, B., & Stern, S. (2003). Shortages of rural mental health professionals. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 17(1), 42–51.  https://doi.org/10.1053/apnu.2003.1.Google Scholar
  125. Merwin, E., Snyder, A., & Katz, E. (2006). Differential access to quality rural healthcare—Professional and policy challenges. Family & Community Health, 29(3), 186–194.Google Scholar
  126. Miller, B. J., Paschall, C. B., III, & Svendsen, D. P. (2006). Mortality and medical comorbidity among patients with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 57(10), 1482–1487.Google Scholar
  127. Miller, G. E., & Chen, E. (2010). Harsh family climate in early life presages the emergence of a proinflammatory phenotype in adolescence. Psychological Science, 21(6), 848–856.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610370161.Google Scholar
  128. Mistiaen, P., Osch, M., Vliet, L., Howick, J., Bishop, F. L., Di Blasi, Z., … Dulmen, S. (2016). The effect of patient-practitioner communication on pain: A systematic review. European Journal of Pain, 20(5), 675–688.Google Scholar
  129. Monnat, S. M., & Chandler, R. F. (2015). Long-term physical health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. The Sociological Quarterly, 56(4), 723–752.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tsq.12107.Google Scholar
  130. Monson, E., Paquet, C., Daniel, M., Brunet, A., & Caron, J. (2016). Place and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(4), 293–300.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22108.Google Scholar
  131. Moore, R. C., Marquine, M. J., Straus, E., Depp, C. A., Moore, D. J., Schiehser, D. M., … Eyler, L. T. (2017). Predictors and barriers to mental health treatment utilization among older veterans living with HIV. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders.  https://doi.org/10.4088/PCC.16m02059.Google Scholar
  132. Morlock, L. L. (1989). Recognition and treatment of mental health problems in the general health sector. In C. A. Taube, D. Mechanic & A. A. Hohmann (Eds.), The future of mental health services research (pp. 39–61). Rockville: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  133. Neumann, M., Edelhauser, F., Kreps, G. L., Scheffer, C., Lutz, G., Tauschel, D., & Visser, A. (2010). Can patient-provider interaction increase the effectiveness of medical treatment or even substitute it?—An exploration on why and how to study the specific effect of the provider. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(3), 307–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.07.020.Google Scholar
  134. Oetzel, J., Wilcox, B., Avila, M., Hill, R., Archiopoli, A., & Ginossar, T. (2015). Patient-provider interaction, patient satisfaction, and health outcomes: testing explanatory models for people living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care, 27(8), 972–978.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2015.1015478.Google Scholar
  135. Panelli, R., & Gallagher, L. M. (2003). “It’s your whole way of life really”: Negotiating work, health and gender. Health & Place, 9(2), 95–105.Google Scholar
  136. Parry, C. D., Blank, M. B., & Pithey, A. L. (2007). Responding to the threat of HIV among persons with mental illness and substance abuse. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 20(3), 235–241.Google Scholar
  137. Paton, C., Esop, R., Young, C., & Taylor, D. (2004). Obesity, dyslipidaemias and smoking in an inpatient population treated with antipsychotic drugs. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(4), 299–305.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00372.x.Google Scholar
  138. Peek, M. E., Lopez, F. Y., Williams, H. S., Xu, L. J., McNulty, M. C., Acree, M. E., & Schneider, J. A. (2016). Development of a conceptual framework for understanding shared decision making among African-American LGBT patients and their clinicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31(6), 677–687.Google Scholar
  139. Perry, B. L., & Pescosolido, B. A. (2015). Social network activation: the role of health discussion partners in recovery from mental illness. Social Science & Medicine, 125, 116–128.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.033.Google Scholar
  140. Pescosolido, B. A., Gardner, C. B., & Lubell, K. M. (1998). How people get into mental health services: Stories of choice, coercion and “muddling through” from “first-timers”. Social Science & Medicine, 46(2), 275–286.Google Scholar
  141. Pescosolido, B. A., Monahan, J., Link, B. G., Stueve, A., & Kikuzawa, S. (1999). The public’s view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1339–1345.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.89.9.1339.Google Scholar
  142. Petterson, S., Williams, I. C., Hauenstein, E. J., Rovnyak, V., & Merwin, E. (2009). Race and ethnicity and rural mental health treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(3), 662–677.Google Scholar
  143. Phelan, M., Stradins, L., & Morrison, S. (2001). Physical health of people with severe mental illness—Can be improved if primary care and mental health professionals pay attention to it. British Medical Journal, 322(7284), 443–444.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7284.443.Google Scholar
  144. Piatt, E. E., Munetz, M. R., & Ritter, C. (2010). An examination of premature mortality among decedents with Serious Mental Illness and those in the general population. Psychiatric Services, 61(7), 663–668.Google Scholar
  145. Pilnick, A., Hindmarsh, J., & Gill, V. T. (2009). Beyond ‘doctor and patient’: Developments in the study of healthcare interactions. Sociology of Health & Illness, 31(6), 787–802.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2009.01194.x.Google Scholar
  146. Poortaghi, S., Raiesifar, A., Bozorgzad, P., Golzari, S. E., Parvizy, S., & Rafii, F. (2015). Evolutionary concept analysis of health seeking behavior in nursing: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 15, 523.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-1181-9.Google Scholar
  147. Popay, J., Thomas, C., Williams, G., Bennett, S., Gatrell, A., & Bostock, L. (2003). A proper place to live: Health inequalities, agency and the normative dimensions of space. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 55–69.Google Scholar
  148. Popolo, A., Autore, G., Pinto, A., & Marzocco, S. (2013). Oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease and chronic renal failure. Free Radical Research, 47(5), 346–356.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2013.779373.Google Scholar
  149. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390–395.Google Scholar
  150. Qamar, N., Pappalardo, A. A., Arora, V. M., & Press, V. G. (2011). Patient-centered care and its effect on outcomes in the treatment of asthma. Patient Related Outcome Measures, 2, 81–109.  https://doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S12634.Google Scholar
  151. Raeisi-Giglou, P., Volgman, A. S., Patel, H., Campbell, S., Villablanca, A., & Hsich, E. (2017). Advances in Cardiovascular Health in women over the past decade: Guideline recommendations for practice. Journal of Womens Health.  https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.6316.Google Scholar
  152. Raue, P. J., Schulberg, H. C., Heo, M., Klimstra, S., & Bruce, M. L. (2009). Patients’ depression treatment preferences and initiation, adherence, and outcome: A randomized primary care study. Psychiatric Services, 60(3), 337–343.Google Scholar
  153. Robinson, J. D., Turner, J. W., Levine, B., & Tian, Y. (2010). Patient-provider interaction and the regulation of diabetes mellitus. Health Communication, 25(6–7), 597–598.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2010.496831.Google Scholar
  154. Robson, D., & Gray, R. (2007). Serious mental illness and physical health problems: A discussion paper. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(3), 457–466.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.07.013.Google Scholar
  155. Ruberton, P. M., Huynh, H. P., Miller, T. A., Kruse, E., Chancellor, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2016). The relationship between physician humility, physician-patient communication, and patient health. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(7), 1138–1145.Google Scholar
  156. Russ, S. A., Larson, K., Tullis, E., & Halfon, N. (2014). A lifecourse approach to health development: Implications for the maternal and child health research agenda. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-013-1284-z.Google Scholar
  157. Saatcioglu, B., & Corus, C. (2014). Poverty and intersectionality: A multidimensional look into the lives of the impoverished. Journal of Macromarketing, 34(2), 122–132.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146713520600.Google Scholar
  158. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Baldwin, A., & Baldwin, C. (1993). Stability of intelligence from preschool to adolescence: The influence of social and family risk factors. Child Development, 64(1), 80–97.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02896.x.Google Scholar
  159. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Barocas, R., Zax, M., & Greenspan, S. (1987). Intelligence quotient scores of 4-year old children: Social-environmental risk factors. Pediatrics, 79(3), 343–350.Google Scholar
  160. Schattner, A. (2014). The clinical encounter revisited. American Journal of Medicine, 127(4), 268–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.11.015.Google Scholar
  161. Schillinger, D., Wang, F., Rodriguez, M., Bindman, A., & Machtinger, E. L. (2006). The importance of establishing regimen concordance in preventing medication errors in anticoagulant care. Journal of Health Communication, 11(6), 555–567.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730600829874.Google Scholar
  162. Schulze, B. (2007). Stigma and mental health professionals: A review of the evidence on an intricate relationship. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(2), 137–155.Google Scholar
  163. Seng, J. S., Lopez, W. D., Sperlich, M., Hamama, L., & Meldrum, C. D. R. (2012). Marginalized identities, discrimination burden, and mental health: Empirical exploration of an interpersonal-level approach to modeling intersectionality. Social Science & Medicine, 75(12), 2437–2445.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.09.023.Google Scholar
  164. Shrivastava, A., Johnston, M., & Bureau, Y. (2012). Stigma of mental illness-1: Clinical reflections. MSM, 10(1), 70–84.Google Scholar
  165. Shuler, K. M. (2014). Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia. Patient Preference Adherence, 8, 701–714.Google Scholar
  166. Simien, E. (2007). Doing intersectionality research: From conceptual issues to practical examples. Politics and Gender, 3(2), 264–271.Google Scholar
  167. Smith, S. G., Wolf, M. S., & von Wagner, C. (2010). Socioeconomic status, statistical confidence, and patient-provider communication: An analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2007). Journal of Health Communication, 15(Suppl 3), 169–185.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.522690.Google Scholar
  168. Socías, M. E., Koehoorn, M., & Shoveller, J. (2016). Gender inequalities in access to health care among adults living in British Columbia, Canada. Women’s Health Issues, 26(1), 74–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2015.08.001.Google Scholar
  169. Söderhamn, O. (1998). Self-care ability in a group of elderly Swedish people: A phenomenological study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(4), 745–753.Google Scholar
  170. Sorkin, D. H., Murphy, M., Nguyen, H., & Biegler, K. A. (2016). Barriers to mental health care for an ethnically and racially diverse sample of older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 64(10), 2138–2143.Google Scholar
  171. Stern, S., Merwin, E., Hauenstein, E., Hinton, I., Rovnyak, V., Wilson, M., … Mahone, I. (2010). The effects of rurality on mental and physical health. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 10(1–2), 33–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10742-010-0062-2.Google Scholar
  172. Stiffman, A. R., Pescosolido, B., & Cabassa, L. J. (2004). Building a model to understand youth service access: The Gateway Provider Model. Mental Health Services Research, 6(4), 189–198.  https://doi.org/10.1023/b:mhsr.0000044745.09952.33.Google Scholar
  173. Strachan, D. P. (1997). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Syed, S. T., Gerber, B. S., & Sharp, L. K. (2013). Traveling towards disease: Transportation barriers to health care access. Journal of Community Health, 38(5), 976–993.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9681-1.Google Scholar
  175. Thomas, T. L., DiClemente, R., & Snell, S. (2014). Overcoming the triad of rural health disparities: How local culture, lack of economic opportunity, and geographic location instigate health disparities. Health Education Journal, 73(3), 285–294.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896912471049.Google Scholar
  176. Thongsai, S., Gray, R., & Bressington, D. (2016). The physical health of people with schizophrenia in Asia: Baseline findings from a physical health check programme. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 23(5), 255–266.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12300.Google Scholar
  177. Tsouroufli, M., Rees, C. E., Monrouxe, L. V., & Sundaram, V. (2011). Gender, identities and intersectionality in medical education research. Medical Education, 45(3), 213–216.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03908.x.Google Scholar
  178. U. K. Department of Health (2002). The social and economic circumstances of adults with mental disorders (Report No. 0116215631). London: TSO. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_4081142.
  179. van Hasselt, F. M., Oud, M. J. T., & Loonen, A. J. M. (2013). Improvement of care for the physical health of patients with Severe Mental Illness: A qualitative study assessing the view of patients and families. BMC Health Services Research, 13, 426–426.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-426.Google Scholar
  180. Vedana, K. G. G., Silva, D. R. A., Miasso, A. I., Zanetti, A. C. G., & Borges, T. L. (2017). The meaning of stigma for people with mental disorders in Brazil. Issues in Mental Health Nursing.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2017.1346013.Google Scholar
  181. Veenstra, G. (2011). Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: Intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-10-3.Google Scholar
  182. Velligan, D. I., Roberts, D. L., Sierra, C., Fredrick, M. M., & Roach, M. J. (2016). What patients with severe mental illness transitioning from hospital to community have to say about care and shared decision-making. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 37(6), 400–405.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2015.1132289.Google Scholar
  183. Velligan, D. I., Sajatovic, M., Hatch, A., Kramata, P., & Docherty, J. P. (2017). Why do psychiatric patients stop antipsychotic medication? A systematic review of reasons for nonadherence to medication in patients with serious mental illness. Patient Preference and Adherence, 11, 449–468.  https://doi.org/10.2147/ppa.s124658.Google Scholar
  184. Viron, M. J., & Stern, T. A. (2010). The impact of serious mental illness on health and healthcare. Psychosomatics, 51(6), 458–465.Google Scholar
  185. Wadsworth, M. E. J. (1999). Social determinants of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  186. Walby, S. (2007). Complexity theory, systems theory, and multiple intersecting social inequalities. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 37(4), 449–470.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0048393107307663.Google Scholar
  187. Warner, D. F., & Brown, T. H. (2011). Understanding how race/ethnicity and gender define age-trajectories of disability: An intersectionality approach. Social Science & Medicine, 72(8), 1236–1248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.034.Google Scholar
  188. White, A. M., Philogene, G. S., Fine, L., & Sinha, S. (2009). Social support and self-reported health status of older adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 99(10), 1872–1878.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.146894.Google Scholar
  189. White, R. O., Chakkalakal, R. J., Presley, C. A., Bian, A., Schildcrout, J. S., Wallston, K. A., … Rothman, R. (2016). Perceptions of provider communication among vulnerable patients with diabetes: Influences of medical mistrust and health literacy. Journal of Health Communication, 21(sup2), 127–134.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2016.1207116.Google Scholar
  190. Whitson, H. E., Johnson, K. S., Sloane, R., Cigolle, C. T., Pieper, C. F., Landerman, L., & Hastings, S. N. (2016). Identifying patterns of multimorbidity in older Americans: Application of latent class analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(8), 1668–1673.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14201.Google Scholar
  191. Winker, G., & Degele, N. (2011). Intersectionality as multi-level analysis: Dealing with social inequality. European Journal of Womens Studies, 18(1), 51–66.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506810386084.Google Scholar
  192. Winterton, R., & Warburton, J. (2011). Models of care for socially isolated older rural carers: Barriers and implications. Rural and Remote Health, 11(3), 1678.Google Scholar
  193. Wright-Berryman, J. L., & Kim, H. W. (2016). Physical health decision-making autonomy preferences for adults with severe mental illness in integrated care. Journal of Social Service Research, 42(3), 281–294.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2015.1093580.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.School of NursingDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations