Advertisement

Impact of Conventional Beliefs and Social Stigma on Attitude Towards Access to Mental Health Services in Pakistan

  • Inayat Shah
  • Muhammad Tahir Khalily
  • Irshad Ahmad
  • Brian Hallahan
Original Paper

Abstract

This study aims to explore the role of conventional beliefs and social stigma on attitude towards access to mental health services. From 50 caregivers data were collected by Perceived Public Stigma Scale and an in-depth semi-structured interview. The majority (86%) of patients having significant symptoms of major mental illness visited traditional healer prior to engagement with the mental health services. However a significant positive finding, related to carers predominantly perceiving that individuals with mental health difficulties were trustworthy, capable of engagement in employment and were comfortable with having them as their friends were identified.

Keywords

Conventional beliefs Social stigma Mental health services 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this study certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval was attained from the ethics committees at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, Institute of Psychiatry, Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi and the Psychology Clinic at Integrated Health Services Hospital F-10 Islamabad. Clinical directors of each facility provided approval for the study prior to participant contact.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was attained from each participant (n = 50) to access their clinical records and to contact their primary care-giver.

Supplementary material

10597_2018_310_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (106 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 106 KB)

References

  1. Abu-Ras, W., & Abu-Bader, S. H. (2008). The impact of the September 11, 2001, attacks on the wellbeing of Arab Americans in New York City. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 3, 217–239.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15564900802487634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afzal, R. (2014). Impact of life events and psychological well-being of demonic possessed and schizophrenic individuals (Un published master thesis).Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad, I., Khalily, M. T., Hallahan, B., & Shah, I. (2016). Factors associated with psychotic relapse in patients with schizophrenia in a Pakistani cohort. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing.  https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Al Bahrani, M. A. (2004). An investigation of the help seeking process among Omani students. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Ohio University, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Alaqeel, A., & Sabbagh, A. J. (2013). Epilepsy; what do Saudi’s living in Riyadh know? Seizure, 22, 205–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2012.12.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Habeeb, T. A. (2003). A pilot study of faith healers’ views on evil eye, jinn possession, and magic in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family & Community Medicine, 10(3), 31–38.Google Scholar
  7. Borneo, T., & Pinfold, V. (2007). Rethink’s Anti-Stigma Campaign Northern Ireland, 2007 Evaluation Report. [ebook]. Retrieved October 1, 2017, from https://www.time-to-change.org.uk/sites/default/files/ful-NI-report-07.pdf.
  8. Choudhry, F. R., Mani, V., Ming, L. C., & Khan, T. M. (2016). Beliefs and perception about mental health issues: A meta-synthesis. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 2807–2818.  https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S111543.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Cinnirella, M., & Loewenthal, K. M. (1999). Religious and ethnic group influences on beliefs about mental illness: A qualitative interview study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72(4), 505–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Corrigan, P. W., & Kleinlein, P. (2005). The impact of mental illness stigma. In P. W. Corrigan (Ed.), Practical strategies for research and social change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association  https://doi.org/10.1037/10887-001.Google Scholar
  12. Corrigan, P. W., & Watson, A. C. (2002). The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(1), 35–53.Google Scholar
  13. Corrigan, P. W., Watson, A. C., & Miller, F. E. (2006). Blame, shame and contamination: The impact of mental illness and drug dependence stigma on family members. Journal of Family Psychology 20, 239–246.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dein, S., Alexander, M., & Napier, A. D. (2008). Jinn, psychiatry and contested notions ofmisfortune among East London Bangladeshis. Transcultural Psychiatry, 35(1), 31–55.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461507087997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dols, M. W. (1987). Insanity and its treatment in Islamic society. Medical History, 31, 1–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dominguez, M. D. G., & Garralda, M. E. (2016). Assessing and managing hallucinations in children and adolescents. BJPsych Advances, 22, 380–390.  https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.115.014738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fabrega, H. (1991). Psychiatric stigma in non-western societies. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 32, 534–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X(91)90033-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Bellew, R., Mills, A., & Gale, C. (2009). The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 82(2), 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haque, A. (2004). Psychology from Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists. Journal of Religion and Health, 43(4), 357–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haslam, N. (2005). Dimensions of folk psychiatry. Review of General Psychology, 9(1), 35–47.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.1.35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyun, M. S., Chung, H. C., & Kim, H. (2017). Experiences of family stigma among mothers of adult children with mental illness in South Korea. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38(10), 845–851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeon, M., & Furnham, A. (2017). Mental health literacy in South Korea. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 10(4), 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnsdotter, S., Ingvarsdotter, K., Östman, M., & Carlbom, A. (2011). Koran reading and negotiation with jinn: Strategies to deal with mental ill health among Swedish Somalis. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14, 741–755.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2010.521144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khalifa, N., & Hardie, T. (2005). Possession and jinn. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98(8), 351–353.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Khalifa, N., Hardie, T., Latif, S., Jamil, I., & Walker, D. M. (2011). Beliefs about Jinn, black magic and the evil eye among Muslims: Age, gender and first language influences. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 4(1), 68–77.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17542863.2010.503051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lam, C. S. E. A (2010). Chinese lay theory and mental illness stigma: Implications for research and practices. Journal of Rehabilitation, 76, 35.Google Scholar
  27. Link, B. G., Cullen, F. T., Frank, J., & Wozniak, J. F. (1987). The social rejection of former mental patients: Understanding why labels matter. American Journal of Sociology, 92(6), 1461–1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Littlewood, R. (2004). Possession states. Psychiatry, 3(8), 8–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mullick, M. S. I., Khalifa, N., Nahar, J. N., & Walker, D. M. (2013). Beliefs about Jinn, black magic and evil eye in Bangladesh: The effects of gender and level of education. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16, 719–729.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2012.717918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nguyen, A. (2003). Cultural and social attitudes towards mental illness in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal, 2, 27–31.Google Scholar
  31. Ramli, F. Z. A., Tilse, C., & Wilson, J. (2017). Qualitative interviewing of Malay caregivers: Stigma and mental health problems of older adults. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 10(2), 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sartorius, N. (2002). Iatrogenic stigma of mental illness. British Medical Journal, 324, 1470–1471.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7352.1470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sottie, C. A., Mfoafo-M’Carthy, M., & Moasun, F. (2018). Graduate social work students’ perceptions and attitude toward mental illness: Implications for practice in developing countries. Social Work in Mental Health.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2018.1448325.Google Scholar
  34. Stanford, M. S. (2007). Demon or disorder: A survey of attitudes toward mental illness in the Christian church. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 10(5), 445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stolzenburg, S., Freitag, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Speerforck, S., Schmidt, S., & Schomerus, G. (2018a). Individuals with currently untreated mental illness: Causal beliefs and readiness to seek help. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Science.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796017000828.Google Scholar
  36. Stolzenburg, S., Freitag, S., Schmidt, S., & Schomerus, G. (2018b). Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems. Psychiatry Research, 260, 24–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Svensson, B., & Hansson, L. (2016). How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 70(4), 309–313.  https://doi.org/10.3109/08039488.2015.1109140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsang, H., Tam, W. H., Chan, P. K. C., F., & Cheung, W. M. (2003). Stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illness in Hong Kong: Implications to their recovery. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 383–396.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.10055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsao, C. I. P., Tummala, A., & Roberts, L. W. (2008). Stigma in mental health care. Academic Psychiatry, 32, 70–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Waqas, A., Zubair, M., Ghulam, H., Ullah, M. W., & Tariq, M. Z. (2014). Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: A cross sectional survey. PeerJ, 2, e698.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.698.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Weatherhead, S., & Daiches, A. (2010). Muslim views on mental health and psychotherapy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(1), 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Youssef, J., & Deane, F. P. (2006). Factors influencing mental-health help-seeking in Arabic-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(1), 43–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zafar, S. N., Syed, R., Tehseen, S., Gowani, S. A., Waqar, S., Zubair, A., et al. (2008). Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population–results of a cross-sectional survey. BMC Psychiatry, 8(1), 1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zaidi, A., & Ali, A. Z. (2017). Embracing mental illness: Do education and contact make any difference in help-seeking intention among Pakistani students? Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 20(7), 679–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zartaloudi, A., & Madianos, M. G. (2010). Mental health treatment fearfulness and help-seeking. Issues in Mental Health Nursing.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2010.490929.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MalakandChakdaraPakistan
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyInternational Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations