Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 493–496 | Cite as

Long-Term Effects of Chemical Warfare on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Chronic Medical Conditions in Veterans

  • Hamideh Safi-Aghdam
  • Mehrzad Shafie
  • Alireza Khoshdel
  • Ehsan Moazen-ZadehEmail author
  • Farhad Avakh
  • Arash Rahmani
Brief Report


We investigated the association between exposure to chemical warfare and chronic mental/physical conditions. This was a secondary analysis of data from a case–control study on Iranian male veterans. Participants with neuropsychiatric disorders other than depressive/anxiety disorders, anatomical defects, or malignancies were excluded. Compared to non-exposed veterans, exposed veterans demonstrated significantly higher odds of PTSD [OR (95% CI) = 5.23 (1.98–13.85)], hypertension [OR (95% CI) = 5.57 (1.68–18.48)], coronary heart disease [OR (95% CI) = 6.8 (1.62–28.49)], and diabetes [OR (95% CI) = 3.88 (1.35–11.16)], and marginally higher odds of moderate to severe depressive symptoms [OR (95% CI) = 2.21 (0.93–5.28)]. This study provides preliminary evidence on association of exposure to chemical warfare with long-term mental disorders as well as chronic medical conditions.


Chemical warfare Post traumatic stress disorder Hypertension Coronary heart disease Veterans 



The study was supported by a grant from Aja University of Medical Sciences to Dr. Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh (Grant No. 7648).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this study declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh HospitalTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Mental Health Research Center, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental HealthIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Modern Epidemiology Research CenterAja University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Faculty of Aerospace and Diving MedicineAja University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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