Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 497–506 | Cite as

Risk Factors of Post-traumatic Stress and Depressive Disorders in Longmenshan Adolescents After the 2013 Lushan Earthquake

  • Jiuping XuEmail author
  • Yan Wang
  • Wanjie Tang
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examined the severity of post-traumatic stress and depressive disorders in Longmenshan adolescents after the 2013 Lushan earthquake, as well as relationships among earthquake-related exposure, post-earthquake negative factors, previous exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and level of earthquake impact (city). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents in Lushan (n = 1416), Baoxing (n = 1102) and Tianquan (n = 1265) at 3 years after the Lushan earthquake. Respondents were evaluated using the Earthquake Experience Scale, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (KADS-6). High levels of post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms were found among adolescents in the most heavily affected cities, and these symptoms were more severe in respondents exposed to the 2008 earthquake. PTSD correlated most strongly with earthquake exposure, whereas depression correlated most strongly with psychosocial stressors following the event.

Keywords

Adolescents Depression Earthquake Level of impact PTSD 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research is supported by the Propaganda Department of People’s Republic of China (No. 2016zybw03) and the Major Bidding Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 17ZDA286). The authors are grateful to both programs for their financial and scientific support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

This project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Sichuan University, the Research Ethics Committee of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, and the Education Bureau of Lushan, Tianquan, and Baoxing Counties. The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

References

  1. Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (dsm-5). International Journal of Offender: Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 57(12), 1546–1548.Google Scholar
  2. Bal, A., & Jensen, B. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters in turkish child and adolescent trauma survivors. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 16(7), 449–457.Google Scholar
  3. Başoglu, M., Kilic¸, C., S¸ alcioˇglu, E., & Livanou, M. (2004). Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression in earthquake survivors in turkey: An epidemiological study. Journal of traumatic stress, 17(2), 133–141.Google Scholar
  4. Breslau, N., & Peterson, E. L. (2008). A second look at prior trauma and the posttraumatic stress disorder effects of subsequent trauma: A prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(4), 431–437.Google Scholar
  5. Cénat, J. M., & Derivois, D. (2014). Assessment of prevalence and determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms in adults survivors of earthquake in haiti after 30 months. Journal of Affective Disorders, 159, 111–117.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson, B. E. (1991). Outcomes of physical abuse and observation of marital violence among adolescents in placement. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6(4), 526–534.Google Scholar
  7. Ceyhan, E., & Ceyhan, A. A. (2007). Earthquake survivors’ quality of life and academic achievement six years after the earthquakes in marmara, turkey. Disasters, 31(4), 516–529.Google Scholar
  8. Cheng, P. X., Cao, F. L., & Su, L. Y. (2009). Reliability and validity of the short mood and feelings questionnaire in chinese adolescents. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 23(1), 60–62, 72.Google Scholar
  9. Chou, F.-C., Chou, P., Lin, C., Su, T. T.-P., Ou-Yang, W.-C., Chien, I.-C., Su, C.-Y., Lu, M.-K., & Chen, M.-C. (2004). The relationship between quality of life and psychiatric impairment for a taiwanese community post-earthquake. Quality of Life Research, 13(6), 1089–1097.Google Scholar
  10. Cougle, J. R., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Does prior exposure to interpersonal violence increase risk of ptsd following subsequent exposure? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(12), 1012–1017.Google Scholar
  11. Davidson, J. R., & Mcfarlane, A. C. (2006). The extent and impact of mental health problems after disaster. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl 2), 9.Google Scholar
  12. Derivois, D., Cénat, J. M., Joseph, N. E., Karray, A., & Chahraoui, K. (2017). Prevalence and determinants of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms in street children survivors of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, four years after. Child Abuse & Neglect, 67, 174–181.Google Scholar
  13. Dongling, L., Hui, C., Ling, M., Wenqian, B., Zailiang, L., & Changying, C. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder and its predictors among bereaved Tibetan adolescents four years after the Yushu earthquake: a cross-sectional survey in China. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(7–8), 1095–1105.Google Scholar
  14. Ekşi, A., Braun, K. L., Ertem-Vehid, H., Peykerli, G., Saydam, R., Toparlak, D., & Alyanak, B. (2007). Risk factors for the development of ptsd and depression among child and adolescent victims following a 7.4 magnitude earthquake. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 11(3), 190–199.Google Scholar
  15. Fang, L., Wu, J., Wang, W., ZuoYong, L., Wang, C., Yang, T., & Cai, Y. (2013). Relocation of the main shock and aftershock sequences of M S 7.0 Sichuan Lushan earthquake. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58(28–29), 3451–3459.Google Scholar
  16. Freedy, J. R., Saladin, M. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., & Saunders, B. E. (1994). Understanding acute psychological distress following natural disaster. Journal of Trauma Stress, 7(2), 257–273.Google Scholar
  17. Furr, J. M., Comer, J. S., Edmunds, J. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Disasters and youth: a meta-analytic examination of posttraumatic stress. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 765–780.Google Scholar
  18. Giannopoulou, I., Smith, P., Ecker, C., Strouthos, M., Dikaiakou, A., & Yule, W. (2006). Factor structure of the children’s revised impact of event scale (cries) with children exposed to earthquake. Personality & Individual Differences, 40(5), 1027–1037.Google Scholar
  19. Goenjian, A. K., Molina, L., Steinberg, A. M., Fairbanks, L. A., Alvarez, M. L., Goenjian, H. A., & Pynoos, R. S. (2001). Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among nicaraguan adolescents after hurricane mitch. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(5), 788–794.Google Scholar
  20. Goenjian, A. K., Najarian, L. M., Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Manoukian, G., Tavosian, A., & Fairbanks, L. A. (1994). Posttraumatic stress disorder in elderly and younger adults after the 1988 earthquake in armenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(6), 895–901.Google Scholar
  21. Goenjian, A. K., Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Najarian, L. M., Asarnow, J. R., Karayan, I., Ghurabi, M., & Fairbanks, L. A. (1995). Psychiatric comorbidity in children after the 1988 earthquake in armenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(9), 1174–1184.Google Scholar
  22. Goenjian, A. K., Roussos, A., Steinberg, A. M., Sotiropoulou, C., Walling, D., Kakaki, M., & Karagianni, S. (2011). Longitudinal study of ptsd, depression, and quality of life among adolescents after the parnitha earthquake. Journal of affective disorders, 133(3), 509–515.Google Scholar
  23. Goenjian, A. K., Walling, D., Steinberg, A. M., Roussos, A., Goenjian, H. A., & Pynoos, R. S. (2009). Depression and ptsd symptoms among bereaved adolescents 61/2 years after the 1988 spitak earthquake. Journal of affective disorders, 112(1), 81–84.Google Scholar
  24. Groome, D. D., & Soureti, A. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety symptoms in children exposed to the 1999 greek earthquake. British Journal of Psychology, 95(3), 387–397.Google Scholar
  25. Hodes, M., & Diaz-Caneja, A. (2007). Treatment options for young people and refugees with post-traumatic stress disorder II. In Responses to traumatized children (pp. 40–65). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Hsu, C.-C., Chong, M.-Y., Yang, P., & Yen, C.-F. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescent earthquake victims in taiwan. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(7), 875–881.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson, B., & Lurie, S. (2006). Adolescent depression: Challenges and opportunities: A review and current recommendations for clinical practice. Advances in Pediatrics, 53(1), 111–163.Google Scholar
  28. Jia, Z., Shi, L., Duan, G., Liu, W., Pan, X., Chen, Y., & Tian, W. (2013). Traumatic experiences and mental health consequences among child survivors of the 2008 sichuan earthquake: a community-based follow-up study. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  29. Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of ptsd, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the national survey of adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 692.Google Scholar
  30. Lau, J. T. F., Yeung, N. C. Y., Yu, X. N., Zhang, J., Mak, W. W. S., Lui, W. W. S., & Zhang, J. (2013). Validation of the chinese version of the children’s revised impact of event scale (cries) among chinese adolescents in the aftermath of the sichuan earthquake in 2008. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(1), 83–90.Google Scholar
  31. LeBlanc, J. C., Almudevar, A., Brooks, S. J., & Kutcher, S. (2002). Screening for adolescent depression: Comparison of the kutcher adolescent depression scale with the beck depression inventory. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 12(2), 113–126.Google Scholar
  32. Liu, X., Liu, L., Yang, J., Chai, F., Wang, A., Sun, L., et al. (1997). The adolescent self-rating life events check list: Examination of its reliability and validity. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1, 34–36.Google Scholar
  33. Mercuri, A., & Angelique, H. L. (2004). Children’s responses to natural, technological, and na-tech disasters. Community Mental Health Journal, 40(2), 167–175.Google Scholar
  34. Messer, S. C., Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Loeber, R., & Al, E. (1995). Development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents: Factor composition and structure across development. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 5(4), 237–249.Google Scholar
  35. Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Catani, C., Ruf, M., & Elbert, T. (2006). Post-tsunami stress: a study of posttraumatic stress disorder in children living in three severely affected regions in srilanka. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(3), 339–347.Google Scholar
  36. ODonnell, M. L., Creamer, M., & Pattison, P. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma: understanding comorbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(8), 1390–1396.Google Scholar
  37. Okuyama, J., Funakoshi, S., Tomita, H., Yamaguchi, T., & Matsuoka, H. (2017). Mental health and school-based intervention among adolescent exposed to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 24, 183–188.Google Scholar
  38. Perrin, S., Meiserstedman, R., & Smith, P. (2005). The children’s revised impact of event scale (cries): Validity as a screening instrument for ptsd. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33(4), 487–498.Google Scholar
  39. Pynoos, R. S., Goenjian, A., Tashjian, M., Karakashian, M., Manjikian, R., Manoukian, G., Steinberg, A. M., & Fairbanks, L. A. (1993). Post-traumatic stress reactions in children after the 1988 armenian earthquake. British Journal of Psychiatry the Journal of Mental Science, 163(2), 239–247.Google Scholar
  40. Roussos, A., Goenjian, A. K., Steinberg, A. M., Sotiropoulou, C., Kakaki, M., Kabakos, C., Karagianni, S., & Manouras, V. (2005). Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among children and adolescents after the 1999 earthquakein anoliosia, greece. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(3), 530–537.Google Scholar
  41. Shaw, J. A., Applegate, B., Tanner, S., Perez, D., Rothe, E., Campo-Bowen, A. E., & Lahey, B. L. (1995). Psychological effects of hurricane and rew on an elementary school population. Journal of the American Academy of Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(9), 1185–1192.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, E. M., North, C., McCool, R., & Shea, J. (1990). Acute post disaster psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(2), 202–206.Google Scholar
  43. Sun, J. W., Xue, J. M., Bai, H. Y., Zhang, H. H., Lin, P. Z., & Cao, F. L. (2016). The association between negative life events, neuroticism and aggression in early adulthood. Personality & Individual Differences, 102, 139–144.Google Scholar
  44. Tang, B., Kang, P., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Wang, B., Lv, Y., & Zhang, L. (2014). Post-traumatic psychological changes among survivors of the lushan earthquake living in the most affected areas. Psychiatry Research, 220(1–2), 384–390.Google Scholar
  45. Tang, W., Zhao, J., Lu, Y., Yan, T., Wang, L., Zhang, J., & Xu, J. (2017). Mental health problems among children and adolescents experiencing two major earthquakes in remote mountainous regions: A longitudinal study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 66–73.Google Scholar
  46. Tural, Ü, Önder, E., & Aker, T. (2012). Effect of depression on recovery from PTSD. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(2), 161–166.Google Scholar
  47. Wang, X., Gao, L., Shinfuku, N., Zhang, H., Zhao, C., & Shen, Y. (2000). Longitudinal study of earthquake-related ptsd in a randomly selected community sample in north china. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(8), 1260–1266.Google Scholar
  48. Wu, H. C., Chou, P., Chou, H. C., Su, C. Y., Tsai, K. Y., Ou-Yang, W. C., Su, T. P., Chao, S. S., Sun, W. J., & Chen, M. C. (2006). Survey of quality of life and related risk factors for a taiwanese village population 3 years post-earthquake. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(4), 355–361.Google Scholar
  49. Xin, X. H., Yao, S. Q., Hospital, S. X., University, C. S., Department, M. P., & University, N. M. (2015). Validity and reliability of the adolescent self-rating life events checklist in middle school students. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 29, 355–360.Google Scholar
  50. Xu, J., Mo, L., & Wu, Z. (2013). A cross-sectional study on risk factors of depression severity among survivors of the 2008 sichuan earthquake. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(6), 847–856.Google Scholar
  51. Xu, J., & Song, X. (2011). A cross-sectional study among survivors of the 2008 sichuan earthquake: prevalence and riskfactors of posttraumatic stress disorder. General Hospital Psychiatry, 33(4), 386–392.Google Scholar
  52. Ying, L., Wu, X., Lin, C., & Jiang, L. (2014).Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the wenchuan earthquake. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e89401.Google Scholar
  53. Ying, L. H., Wu, X. C., Lin, C. D., & Chen, C. (2013). Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among child survivors 1 year following the wenchuan earthquake in china. European Child &Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(9), 567–575.Google Scholar
  54. Zhang, Y., Kong, F., Wang, L., Chen, H., Gao, X., Tan, X., Chen, H., Lv, J., & Liu, Y. (2010). Mental health and coping styles of children and adolescent survivors one year after the 2008 chinese earthquake. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1403–1409.Google Scholar
  55. Zhang, Y., Liao, C., & Wei, Q. (2015). Reliability and validity of the adolescent self- rating life events check list-formalin disaster area. China Journal of Health Psychology, 5, 34–36.Google Scholar
  56. Zhou, Y., Han, Q., & Fan, F. (2016). Latent growth curves and predictors of depressive symptoms among chinese adolescent earthquake survivors. Personality & Individual Differences, 100, 173–178.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Emergency Management and Reconstruction in Post-disasterSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Centre for Educational and Health PsychologySichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Mental Health Center, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China HospitalSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute of Emergency Management and Reconstruction in Post-disasterSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations