Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 53, Issue 6, pp 719–724 | Cite as

Mental Health and Pain in Older Adults: Findings from Urban HEART-2

  • Vahid Rashedi
  • Mohsen Asadi-Lari
  • Mahshid Foroughan
  • Ahmad Delbari
  • Reza Fadayevatan
Brief Report


Pain is an important component of disability problems, and plays a key role in mental health of older adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between mental health and pain in older adults of Tehran, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study using data on 5326 older adults aged ≥60 years old from a large population-based survey (Urban HEART-2). A multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants in Tehran, Iran, in 2011. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), pain questionnaire, and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to collect the data. A total of 5326 older adults, 3811 (71.6%) married and 2797 (52.5%) female, were included into the study. The mean age of the participants was 68.92 ± 7.02 years. Mean of GHQ-28 scores in the sample was 51.08 ± 10.94, which indicates of a good level of mental health. The majority of the older adults had knee and back pain (more than 50%). Regardless of the chronicity, time, and the mode of reaction to it, knee and back pain were the highly reported pains among the participants. There was a statistically significant difference between two groups of older adults, with and without pain, in terms of GHQ-28 scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed that there was a relationship between mental health and the following factors: pain in head, shoulder, teeth, upper and lower limbs, education, gender, age, and marital status. Whatever the explanation, the relation of lowered health status to pain in all body parts among older people is considerable. This renders this matter as a top priority in health policy making.


Older adults Mental health Pain Urban HEART 



This study was part of a PhD thesis in Gerontology by Vahid Rashedi, and has been supported by the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


The Municipality of Tehran funded the main part of the present study. The World Health Organization Centre for Health Development (WHO Kobe Centre) developed the model and supported Urban-HEART in Tehran and more than 60 countries across the world.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vahid Rashedi
    • 1
  • Mohsen Asadi-Lari
    • 2
  • Mahshid Foroughan
    • 1
  • Ahmad Delbari
    • 1
  • Reza Fadayevatan
    • 1
  1. 1.Iranian Research Center on Aging, Department of AgingUniversity of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Oncopathology Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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