Temporal variation in genetic structure within the threatened spectacled eider
- 34 Downloads
We examined the genetic structure of the threatened spectacled eider 14–18 years after the initial assessment to evaluate the influence of population recovery on diversity. Concordant with the initial assessment, spectacled eiders were highly structured at mitochondrial (mt) DNA and lacked differentiation at microsatellite loci. The degree and spatial pattern of structure has changed at mtDNA; a 33.0–40.3% reduction in overall FST and ΦST, respectively, and a marked reduction in pairwise FST (− 83.1 to − 91.4%) among Alaska sites. Reduction in genetic structure is suggestive of increased female dispersal within Alaska. These findings highlight the importance of reevaluating genetic diversity as species recover from declines as microevolutionary and demographic processes are dynamic and continually shape associations among populations.
KeywordsPopulation genetic structure Somateria fischeri Spectacled eider
Funding was provided by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks. Logistic and transportation to Chaun-Delta camp was provided by Chukotka Gold Mining Co. Blood samples were collected under USGS Alaska Science Center ACUC assurance plan code 2008-04. We thank the biologists and technicians who assisted with this project. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
- Alisauskas RT, Traylor JJ, Swoboda CJ, Kehoe FP (2004) Components of population growth rate for white-winged scoters in Saskatchewan, Canada. Anim Biodivers Conserv 27(1):451–460Google Scholar
- Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin ver. 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolut Bioinform Online 1:47–50Google Scholar
- Hodges JI, Eldridge WD (2001) Aerial surveys of eiders and other waterbirds on the eastern Arctic coast of Russia. Wildfowl 52:127–142Google Scholar
- Petersen MR, Grand JB, Dau CP (2000) Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), version 2.0. In: Poole AF, Gill FB (eds) The birds of North America. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, IthacaGoogle Scholar
- Solovyeva DV (2015) The eiders: comparisons between species. In: Waltho CM, Coulson JC (eds) The common eider. T & AD Poyser, London, pp 276–305Google Scholar
- Sonsthagen SA, Wilson RE, Underwood JG (2017) Genetic implications of bottleneck effects of differing severities on genetic diversity in naturally recovering populations: an example from Hawaiian coot and Hawaiian gallinule. Ecol Evol 7:9925–9934. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3530 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sonsthagen SA, Haughey CL, Sexson MG, Solovyeva D, Petersen MR, Powell AN (2019) Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA data, 2014–2018, Alaska and Russia. U.S. Geological Survey data release. https://doi.org/10.5066/P9F8DV8O
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1993) Final rule to list the spectacled eider as threatened. Fed Reg 58:27474–27480Google Scholar