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Spatial genetic variation and habitat association of Rhinichthys cataractae, the longnose dace, in the Driftless Area of the upper Mississippi River basin

  • Anna C. Wieman
  • Peter B. Berendzen
Research Article

Abstract

The Driftless Area of the upper Mississippi River drainage is a unique geographic region because of its complex geological history and the influence of recent, intensive human activities. The longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae, is a relatively common, small freshwater fish that is distributed in swift, cool streams within the region. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial genetic differentiation of the longnose dace and define the broad scale environmental variables that shape the distribution of the species in the southwestern portion of the Driftless Area. Genotypic data from seven microsatellite loci were analyzed for 276 individuals from 15 localities representing major drainages within the region in northeast Iowa. Broad scale environmental variables including hydrologic, soil, and climatic factors were evaluated to construct an ecological niche model (ENM) to predict the suitability of habitat for the species within the region. Results of the genetic analyses revealed two distinct, but somewhat admixed genetic clusters of longnose dace in Iowa. The genetic differentiation between localities and between drainages was low to moderate with some evidence of isolation by distance. Most of the variation was observed by differences between individuals within local populations. The ENM generated largely reflected the known distribution of the species in Iowa with a decreasing probability of suitable habitat from northern to southern drainages. Geologic factors played a key role in the model. The distribution and population structure of the longnose dace in the northeast Iowa revealed that isolation by distance, historical processes and the underlying geology are primarily responsible for the observed spatial distribution of genetic variation.

Keywords

Last glacial maximum Population connectivity Ecological niche model Cyprinidae Indicator species 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Courtney Calhoun, Megan Merner, Haley Rinehart, Erica Scullin, and Janelle Woodin for their assistance with field collection and laboratory work. We also thank John DeGroote and UNI GeoTREE for help with GIS data and mapping. Partial funding for this project was provided through the State Wildlife Grants Program (SWG Grant# T-53-R-1) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Funding was also provided by the Environmental Science Graduate Program, University of Northern Iowa.

Supplementary material

10592_2018_1106_MOESM1_ESM.docx (54 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 54 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Northern IowaCedar FallsUSA

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