Advertisement

Contemporary Family Therapy

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 37–46 | Cite as

Estimating the Validity and Reliability of Gottman Questionnaires of “Couple Trust Measurement”

  • M. Shirdel
  • S. HosseinianEmail author
  • S. A. Kimiaei
  • M. R. Safarian
Original Paper
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

Despite the efficacy and the recognition in the field of couple therapy, there is little in the literature that discusses the integration of couple therapy. The purpose of this study was estimating the validity and reliability of “Couple Trust Measurement” questionnaire, designed by John Gottman. The statistical population was all the married couples of Bojnourd, and the study sample was consisted of two groups of married men and women (278 and 308) who were selected by using cluster random sampling. To estimate the questionnaire validity, different methods were used; calculating the correlation of the score of each item with the total score, Cronbach’s alpha, and the split-half coefficient. To investigate the scale reliability, these methods were performed; exploratory factor analysis, principal components, confirmatory factor analysis, maximum likelihood. The convergent reliability was investigated by calculating the Pearson correlation between the couple’s trust measurement scale and the perceived relationship quality components inventory (PRQC) and Thompson and Walker’s marital intimacy scale 1983 (MIS). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the scale reliability based on the gender and the number of marital years. SPSS 17 and AMOS.20 software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that “Couple Trust Measurement” questionnaire has high reliability and validity, thus it can be used as reliable and valid tools to measure the couple trust in Iran.

Keywords

Gottman Questionnaires Cronbach’s alpha Couple Trust Measurement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the all offices in Bojnourd city for allowing us to carry out this research. We are also thankful to the all participant couples in the various offices for making the data available for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Babcock, J. C., Gottman, J. M., Ryan, K. D., & Gottman, J. S. (2013). A component analysis of a brief psycho-educational couples’ workshop: One-year follow-up results. Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 252–280.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6427.12017.Google Scholar
  2. Barnacle, R. S., & Abbott, D. A. (2009). The development and evaluation of a gottman-based premarital education program: A pilot study. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 8(1), 64–82.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15332690802626734.Google Scholar
  3. Bogaert, A. F., & Sadava, S. (2002). Adult attachment and sexual behavior. Personal Relationships, 9(2), 191–204.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6811.00012.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, R. P. C., & Gottman, J. M. (2012). Reducing situational violence in low-income couples by fostering healthy relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 187–198.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2012.00288.x.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, D. (2001). The relationship between attachment styles, Trust and the marital attitudes of college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of the graduate school of psychology, Seton Hall University, Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). Los Angels, CA. Retrieved from http://scholarship.shu.edu/dissertations/1666. Accessed 2018.
  6. Buehlman, K., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. (1992). How a couple views their past predicts their future: Predicting divorce from an oral history interview. Journal of Family Psychology, 5(3–4), 295–318.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.5.3-4.295.Google Scholar
  7. Burke, C. S., Sims, D. E., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2007). Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration. Leadership Quarterly, 18(6), 606–632.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006.Google Scholar
  8. Cheung, E. O., Gardner, W. L., & Anderson, J. F. (2014). Emotionships: Examining people’s emotion-regulation relationships and their consequences for well-being. Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.Google Scholar
  9. Cloke, B. (2013). 5 Ways to Rebuild Trust after It’s Broken: Care2 Healthy Living, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  10. Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment, and personal need non-fulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1980.tb00005.x.Google Scholar
  11. Costa, Z., DiDona, T., & Rusilka, A. (2017). Correlational relationship between organizational self-efficacy and organizational self-esteem. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7(2), 1–9.Google Scholar
  12. Daker-White, G., & Donovan, J. (2002). Sexual satisfaction, quality of life and the transaction of intimacy in hospital patients’ accounts of their (hetero) sexual relationships. Sociology of Health & Illness, 24(1), 9–113.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00005.Google Scholar
  13. David, P. (2015). Wedding the Gottman and Johnson approaches into an integrated model of couple therapy. The Family Journal, 23(4), 336–345.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480715601675.Google Scholar
  14. Driscoll, R., Davis, K. E., & Lipetz, M. E. (1972). Parental interference and romantic love: The Romeo & Juliet effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033373.Google Scholar
  15. Erden, A. (2009). Predicting organizational trust level of school managers and teachers at elementary schools. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 2180–2190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.383.Google Scholar
  16. Flanagan, C. (1999). Early socialization: Sociability and attachment. 1st Edition. New York:Rutledge.Google Scholar
  17. Fletcher, G. (2002). The new science of intimate relationships. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Fukuyama, F. (2010). Social capital, civil society, and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713701144.Google Scholar
  19. Garanzini, S., Yee, A., Gottman, J., Gottman, J., Cole, C., Preciado, M., & Jasculca, C. (2017). Results of Gottman method couples therapy with gay and lesbian couples. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 43(4), 674–684.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jmft.12276.Google Scholar
  20. Giddens, A. (2011). Keeping the family firm. New Statesman & Society, 8, 374.Google Scholar
  21. Glaeser, E. G., Laibson, D., Scheinkman, J. A., & Soutter, C. L. (2000). Measuring trust. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 65, 811–846.  https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300554926.Google Scholar
  22. Gottman, J., & Gottman, J. (2017). The natural principles of love. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 9, 7–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12182.Google Scholar
  23. Gottman, J., & Levenson, R. W. (2002). A two-factor model for predicting when a couple will divorce: Exploratory analyses using 14-year longitudinal data. Family Process, 41(1), 83–96.Google Scholar
  24. Gottman, J., Murray, J., Swanson, C., Tyson, R., & Swanson, K. (2002). The mathematics of marriage: Dynamic nonlinear models. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gottman, J., & Silver, N. (2012). What makes love last? How to build trust and avoid betrayal. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  26. Gottman, J. M. (1979). Marital interaction: Experimental investigations. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Gottman, J. M. (1981). Time-series analysis: A comprehensive introduction for social scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gottman, J. M. (1982). Temporal form: Toward a new language for describing relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 943–962.  https://doi.org/10.2307/351456.Google Scholar
  29. Gottman, J. M. (1993). The roles of conflict engagement, escalation, and avoidance in marital interaction: A longitudinal view of five types of couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 6–15.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.1.6.Google Scholar
  30. Gottman, J. M. (1994). What predicts divorce? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Gottman, J. M. (1998). Psychology and the study of marital processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 169.Google Scholar
  32. Gottman, J. M. (1999). The marriage clinic. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  33. Gottman, J. M. (2002). A Multidimensional approach to couples. In F. Kaslow & T. Patterson (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy (Vol. 2, pp. 355–372). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Gottman, J. M. (2004). Bringing baby home: A workshop for new and expectant parents. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 19, 28–30.Google Scholar
  35. Gottman, J. M. (2011). The science of trust: Emotional attunement for couples. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  36. Gottman, J. M. (2015). Principia amoris: The new science of love. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (2013). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Seattle, WA: Amazon Digital Services.Google Scholar
  38. Gottman, J. M., & Ringland, J. (1981). The analysis of dominance and bi-directionality in social development. Child Development, 52, 393–412.Google Scholar
  39. Gottman, J. M., & Roy, A. K. (1990). Sequential analysis: A guide for behavioral researchers. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (2016). The seven principles for making marriage work. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  41. Greeff, A. P. (2000). Characteristics of families that function well. Journal of Family Issues.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251300021008001.Google Scholar
  42. Gubbins, C. A., Perosa, L. M., & Bartle-Haring, S. (2010). Relationships between married couples’ self-differentiation/individuation and Gottman’s model of marital interactions. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(4), 383–395.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-010-9132-4.Google Scholar
  43. Harris, V. W., Skogrand, L., & Hatch, D. (2008). Role of friendship, trust, and love in strong latino marriages. Marriage & Family Review, 44(4), 455–488.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01494920802454041.Google Scholar
  44. Hicks, M. W., McWey, L. M., Kristen, E., Benson, K. E., & West, S. H. (2004). Using what premarital couples already know to inform marriage education: Integration of a Gottman model perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 26(1), 97–113.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COFT.0000016915.27368.0b.Google Scholar
  45. Holton, R. (1994). Deciding to trust, coming to believe. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 72(1), 63–76.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00048409412345881.Google Scholar
  46. Hooman, H. A. (2016). Structural equation modeling with LISREL application. Tehran: Samt Publications.Google Scholar
  47. Jeanfreau, M. M. (2009). A qualitative study investigating the decision-making process of women’s participation in marital infidelity. Doctor of philosophy. Department of Family Studies and Human Services, Kansas State University.Google Scholar
  48. Karhina, K., Ng, N., Ghazinour, M., & Eriksson, M. (2016). Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: A comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 10, 37.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-016-0068-4.Google Scholar
  49. Khaje, A., Bahrami, F., Fatehizadeh, M., Abedi, M., & Sajjadian, P. (2013). The effect of happiness training based on cognitive behavioral approach on quality of marital life in married males and females. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 14(3), 11–21.Google Scholar
  50. Kim, S. S., Chung, Y., Perry, M. J., Kawachi, I., & Subramanian, S.V. (2012). Association between interpersonal trust, reciprocity, and depression in South Korea: A prospective analysis. PLoS ONE, 7(1), 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030602.Google Scholar
  51. Lewicki, R. J., Tomlinson, E. C., & Gillespie, N. (2006). Models of interpersonal trust development: Theoretical approaches, empirical evidence, and future directions. Journal of Management, 32, 991–1022.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206306294405.Google Scholar
  52. Lisista, E. (2012). Trust and betrayal. Retrieved from https://www.gottman.com. Accessed 2018.
  53. Lyon, F. (2002). Trust, network, and norms: The creation of social capital in agricultural economies in Ghana. World Development, 28(4), 663–689.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(99)00146-1.Google Scholar
  54. Maddux, W. W., & Brewer, M. B. (2005). Gender differences in the relational and collective bases for trust. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 8(2), 159–171.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430205051065.Google Scholar
  55. McNulty, M. S., Allan, G. M., Todd, D., McFerran, J. B., & McCracken, R. M. (1981). Isolation from chickens of a rotavirus lacking the rotavirus group antigen. Journal of General Virology, 55, 405–413.Google Scholar
  56. Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Griffin, D. W. (2000). Self-esteem and the quest for felt security: How perceived regard regulates attachment processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(3), 478–449.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.3.478.Google Scholar
  57. Newton, K. (2001). Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy. International Political Science Review., 22(2), 201–214.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512101222004.Google Scholar
  58. Norris, S. L., & Zweigenhaft, R. L. (2009). Self-monitoring: Trust and commitment in romantic Relationship. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 215–221.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549909598375.Google Scholar
  59. Perrone, K. M., & Worthington, E. L. (2001). Factors influencing rating of marital quality by the individual’s within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 93–102.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.48.1.3.Google Scholar
  60. Peterson, M. (2001). Attachment style, trust, and exchange orientation: A mediational model. Electronic Theises and Dissertations. 501. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/etd/501. Accessed 2017.
  61. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  62. Rempel, J. K., Holmes, J. G., & Zanna, M. P. (1985). Trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 95–112.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.49.1.95.Google Scholar
  63. Rickham, P. P. (1964). Human experimentation: Code of ethics of the world medical association: Declaration of Helsinki. British Medical Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5402.177.Google Scholar
  64. Safiri, K., & Mirzaahmadi, M. 2016. Confidence in the wife: Case study, women in Tehran. Journal of Iranian Social Studies, 1(1),125–157 (Persian).Google Scholar
  65. Saginak, K. A., & Saginak, M. A. (2005). Balancing work and family, Equity, gender and marital dissatisfaction. The Family Journal Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Family, 13(2), 160–162.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480704273230.Google Scholar
  66. Shapiro, A. F., & Gottman, J. (2005). Effects on marriage of a psycho-communicative-educational intervention with couples undergoing the transition to parenthood, evaluation at 1-year post-intervention. Journal of Family Communication, 5(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  67. Shapiro, A. F., Gottman, J. M., & Carrere, S. (2000). The baby and the marriage: Identifying factors that buffer against decline in marital satisfaction after the first baby arrives. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(1), 59–70.Google Scholar
  68. Sivandian, M., Besharat, M. A., Habibi Asgarabad, M., & Moghadamzade, A. (2016). The moderating role of ego strength on the relationship between attachment styles and marital adjustment. Community Health, 3(1), 41–53 (Persian).Google Scholar
  69. Smith, D. A., & Peterson, K. M. (2008). Over perception of spousal criticism in dysphonia and marital discord. Behavior Therapy, 39(3), 300–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2007.09.002.Google Scholar
  70. Smith, P. A., & Shoho, A. R. (2007). Higher education trust, bank and race: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Innovative Higher Education, 32, 125–138.Google Scholar
  71. Stemberg, R. J., & Barnes, M. L. (1985). Real and ideal others in romantic relationships: Is four a crowd? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(6), 1586–1608.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.6.1586.Google Scholar
  72. Tokuda, Y., Fugii, S., Jimba, M., & Inoguchi, T. (2009). The relationship between trust in mass media and the health care system and individual health, evidence from the Asia Barometer survey. BMC Medicine, 7(1), 4–10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-7-4.Google Scholar
  73. Touesnard, L. (2009). What‘s love got to do with it? A study of the effects of infidelity on contemporary couples. Degree of Master of Arts. University of Waterloo. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/4303. Accessed 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Shirdel
    • 1
  • S. Hosseinian
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. A. Kimiaei
    • 3
  • M. R. Safarian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Mashhad BranchIslamic Azad UniversityMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Education and PsychologyProfessor of Alzahra UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Education ScienceFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations