Advertisement

Rasch Analysis of the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) with Military Couples

  • Adam FareroEmail author
  • Ryan Bowles
  • Adrian Blow
  • Lisa Ufer
  • Michelle Kees
  • Danielle Guty
Original Paper

Abstract

The quality of a romantic relationship can have serious implications for individual well-being. As such, it is important that we are able to accurately measure romantic relationship quality, also known as dyadic adjustment, in order to conduct rigorous studies that include this construct. The Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby et al., J Marital Fam Ther 21:289–308, 1995), a more concise and valid version of the frequently used Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; Spanier, J Marriage Fam 38:15–28, 1976), was developed to accurately measure dyadic adjustment. However, the RDAS has yet to be validated using advanced measurement techniques. This study specifically evaluated the RDAS using Rasch modeling in a sample of military couples, a population at high risk for relationship challenges due to the deployment process. Evaluation of the RDAS using Rasch modeling confirmed that it serves as both a global and multidimensional scale, with only minor revisions recommended to help improve its validity.

Keywords

Rasch modeling Relationship adjustment Couples 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs through the Psychological Health/Traumatic Brain Injury Research Program under Award Nos. W81XWH-12-1-0419 and 0418 (Blow, PI; Gorman, Partnering PI). Pre-deployment data collection was supported by the Rachel Upjohn Clinical Scholars Award and the Berman Research Fund at the University of Michigan, Depression Center as well as the College of Social Science and the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Michigan State University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There were no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Ethical Approval

Approvals were obtained from the relevant Institutional Review Boards as well as the USAMRMC Office of Research Protections prior to any data collection.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was also given by all individuals prior to their participation in the study.

References

  1. Allen, E. S., Rhoades, G. K., Stanley, S. M., & Markman, H. J. (2010). Hitting home: Relationships between recent deployment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and marital functioning for army couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 280–288.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, S., Tambling, R., Huff, S., Heafner, J., Johnson, L., & Ketring, S. (2014). The development of a reliable change index and cutoff for the revised dyadic adjustment scale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 40, 525–534.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jmft.12095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrich, D. (1978). A rating scale formulation for ordered response categories. Psychometrika, 43, 561–573.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02293814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baptist, J. A., Amanor-Boadu, Y., Garrett, K., & Nelson Goff, B. S. (2011). Military marriages: The aftermath of operation Iraqi freedom (OIF) and operation enduring freedom (OEF) deployments. Contemporary Family Therapy, 33, 199–214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-011-9162-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birchnell, J. (1988). The assessment of the marital relationship by questionnaire. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 3, 57–70.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02674658808407693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blow, A. J., Bowles, R. P., Farero, A., Subramaniam, S., Lappan, S., Nichols, E., & Guty, D. (2017). Couples coping through deployment: Findings from a sample of National Guard Families. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 1753–1767.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blow, A. J., Gorman, L., Ganoczy, D., Kees, M., Kashy, D. A., Valenstein, M., & Chermack, S. (2013). Hazardous drinking and family functioning in National Guard Veterans and spouses postdeployment. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 303–313.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Busby, D. M., Crane, D. R., Larson, J. H., & Christensen, C. (1995). A revision of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale for use with distressed and nondistressed couples: Construct hierarchy and multidimensional scales. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 21, 289–308.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00163.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carey, M. P., Spector, I. P., Lantinga, L. J., & Krauss, D. J. (1993). Reliability of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 238–240.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter, S., Loew, B., Allen, E., Stanley, S., Rhoades, G., et al. (2011). Relationships between soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 352–355.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caselli, L.T., & Motta, R.W. (1995). The effect of PTSD and combat level on Vietnam veterans’ perceptions of child behavior and marital adjustment. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 51. 4–12.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199501)51:1%3C4::AID-JCLP2270510102%3E3.0.CO;2-E.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cortes, K., Scholer, A., Kohler, A., & Cavallo, J. V. (2018). Perceiving relationship success through a motivational lens: A regulatory focus perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167217747547.Google Scholar
  14. Crane, D., Middleton, K., & Bean, R. (2000). Establishing criterion scores for the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 28, 53–60.  https://doi.org/10.1080/019261800261815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crane, D. R., Allgood, S. M., Larson, J. H., & Griffin, W. (1990). Assessing marital quality with distressed and nondistressed couples: A comparison and equivalency table for three frequently used measures. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 87–93.  https://doi.org/10.2307/352841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crane, D. R., Busby, D. M., & Larson, J. H. (1991). A factor analysis of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale with distressed and nondistressed couples. American Journal of Family Therapy, 19, 60–66.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01926189108250835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Embretson, S. E. (1983). Construct validity: Construct representation versus nomothetic span. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 179–197.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.93.1.179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Multivariate applications books series. Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Erbes, C., Meis, L., Polusny, M., Compton, J., & MacDermid Wadsworth, S. (2012). An examination of PTSD symptoms and relationship functioning in U.S. soldiers of the Iraq war over time. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 187–190.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fincham, F. D., & Linfield, K. J. (1997). A new look at marital quality: Can spouses feel positive and negative about their marriage? Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 489–502.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.11.4.489-502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, W., Donahue, K., Long, J., Heiman, J. R., Rosen, R. C., & Sand, M. S. (2015). Individual and partner correlates of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife couples: Dyadic analysis of the International Survey of Relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1609–1620.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0426-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fletcher, G., Simpson, J., & Thomas, G. (2000). The measurement of perceived relationship quality components: A confirmatory factor analytic approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 340–354.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200265007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gallegos, M. L., Murphy, S. E., Benner, A. D., Jacobvitz, D. B., & Hazen, N. L. (2017). Marital, parental, and whole-family predictors of toddlers’ emotional regulation: The role of parental emotional withdrawal. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 294–303.  https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glenn, D. M., Beckham, J. C., Feldman, M. E., Kirby, A. C., Hertzberg, M. A., & Moore, S. D. (2002). Violence and hostility among families of Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Violence and Victims, 17, 473–489.  https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.17.4.473.33685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodwin, R. (1992). Overall, just how happy are you? The magical question 31 of the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Family Therapy, 19, 273–275.Google Scholar
  26. Heiman, J., Long, J., Smith, S., Fisher, W. A., Sand, M. S., & Rosen, R. C. (2011). Sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in midlife and older couples in five countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 741–753.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9703-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hendrick, S. S. (1988). A generic measure of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 93–98.  https://doi.org/10.2307/352430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Herrington, R. L., Mitchell, A. E., Castellani, A. M., Joseph, J. I., Snyder, D. K., & Gleaves, D. H. (2008). Assessing disharmony and disaffection in intimate relationships: Revision of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory factor scales. Psychological Assessment, 20, 341–350.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoge, C., Auchterlonie, J., & Milliken, C. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1023–1032.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W., & Jones, B. Q. (2008). Is there something unique about marriage? The relative impact of marital status, relationship quality, and network social support on ambulatory blood pressure and mental health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 239–244.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9018-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jensen, P. S., Martin, D., & Watanabe, H. (1996). Children’s response to parental separation during operation desert storm. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 433–441.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199604000-00009/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, M., Nguyen, L., Anderson, J. R., Liu, W., & Vennum, A. (2018). Pathways to romantic relationship success among Chinese young adult couples: Contributions of family dysfunction, mental health problems, and negative couple interaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 5–23.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407514522899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kahn, J., Collinge, W., & Soltysik, R. (2016). Post-9/11 veterans and their partners improve mental health outcomes with a self-directed mobile and web-based wellness training program: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 18. e255.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keeports, C. R., & Pittman, L. D. (2017). I wish my parents would stop arguing! The impact of interparental conflict on young adults. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 294–303.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X15613821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim, H. K., & McKenry, P. C. (2002). The relationship between marriage and psychological well-being: A Longitudinal analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 885–911.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251302237296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Knobloch, L. K., & Knobloch-Fedders, L. M. (2010). The role of relational uncertainty in depressive symptoms and relationship quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 137–159.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407509348809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Linacre, J. M. (1998). Structure in Rasch residuals: Why principal components analysis (PCA)? Rasch Measurement Transactions, 12, 636.Google Scholar
  38. Linacre, J. M. (2014). Winsteps® (Version 3.81.0) [Computer software]. Beaverton, OR: Winsteps.com.Google Scholar
  39. Locke, H. J., & Wallace, K. M. (1959). Short marital adjustment and prediction tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage and Family Living, 21, 251–255.  https://doi.org/10.2307/348022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mansfield, A. J., Kaufman, J. S., Marshall, S. W., Gaynes, B. N., Morrissey, J. P., & Engel, C. C. (2010). Deployment and the use of mental health services among U.S. Army wives. New England Journal of Medicine, 362, 101–109.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0900177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martin, M. P., Miller, R. B., Kubricht, B., Yorgason, J. B., & Carroll, J. S. (2015). Relational aggression and self-reported spousal health: A longitudinal analysis. Contemporary Family Therapy, 37, 386–395.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-015-9348-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Masters, G. N. (1982). A Rasch model for partial credit scoring. Psychometrika, 47, 149–174.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02296272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mattson, R. E., Paldino, D., & Johnson, M. D. (2007). The increased construct validity and clinical utility of assessing relationship quality using separate positive and negative dimensions. Psychological Assessment, 19, 146–151.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.1.146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCarroll, J. E., Ursano, R. J., Liu, X., Thayer, L. E., Newby, J. H., Norwood, A. E., & Fullerton, C. S. (2000). Deployment and the probability of spousal aggression by U.S. Army soldiers. Military Medicine, 165, 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Merolla, A. (2010). Relational maintenance during military deployment: Perspectives of wives of deployed U.S. soldiers. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 38, 4–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00909880903483557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Melvin, K., Gross, D., Hayat, M., Jennings, B. M., & Campbell, J. C. (2012). Couple functioning and post-traumatic stress symptoms in U.S. Army couples: The role of resilience. Research in Nursing and Health, 35, 164–177.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.21459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Milliken, C., Auchterlonie, J., & Hoge, C. W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 2141–2148.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.298.18.2141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moelker, R., & van der Kloet, I. (2006). Military families and the armed forces. In G. Caforio (Ed.), Handbook of sociology of the military (pp. 201–223). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan, G. B., DiStefano, C., & Motl, R. W. (2016). Examining class differences in method effects related to negative wording: An example using Rasch mixture modeling. Journal of Applied Measurement, 17, 441–457.Google Scholar
  50. Norton, R. (1983). Measuring marital quality: A critical look at the dependent variable. Journal of Marriage and Family, 45, 141–151.  https://doi.org/10.2307/351302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Perline, R., Wright, B. D., & Wainer, H. (1979). The Rasch model as additive conjoint measurement. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 237–255.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167900300213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Proulx, C. M., & Snyder-Rivas, L. A. (2013). The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 194–202.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests, (Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational Research), with foreward and after word by B.D. Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  54. Rost, J. (2001). The growing family of Rasch models. In A. Boomsma, M. A. J. van Duijn & T. A. B. Snijders (Eds.), Essays on item response theory, Lecture notes in statistics (Vol. 157). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Sabourin, S., Lussier, Y., Laplante, B., & Wright, J. (1990). Unidimensional and multidimensional models of dyadic adjustment: A hierarchical reconciliation. Psychological Assessment, 2, 333–337.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.2.3.333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sabourin, S., Valois, P., & Lussier, Y. (2005). Development and validation of a brief version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale with a nonparametric item analysis model. Psychological Assessment, 17, 15–27.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.17.1.15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schumm, W. R., Nichols, C. W., Schectman, K. L., & Grigsby, C. C. (1983). Characteristics of responses to the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale by a sample of 84 married mothers. Psychological Reports, 53, 567–572.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1983.53.2.567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sharpley, C. E., & Cross, D. G. (1982). A psychometric evaluation of the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 739–741.  https://doi.org/10.2307/351594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sharpley, C. F., & Rogers, H. J. (1984). Preliminary validation of the Abbreviated Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale: Some psychometric data regarding a screening test of marital adjustment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 1045–1049.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164484444029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. South, S. C., Krueger, R. F., & Iacono, W. G. (2009). Factorial invariance of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale across gender. Psychological Assessment, 21, 622–628.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15–28.  https://doi.org/10.2307/350547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Spanier, G. B. (1979). The measurement of marital quality. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 5, 288–300.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00926237908403734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spanier, G. B., & Cole, C. L. (1976). Toward clarification and investigation of marital adjustment. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 6, 121–146.Google Scholar
  64. Spanier, G. B., & Thompson, L. (1982). A confirmatory analysis of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 731–738.  https://doi.org/10.2307/351593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thompson, L. (1988). Women, men, and marital quality. Journal of Family Psychology., 2, 95–100.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Troxel, W. M., DeSantis, A., Germain, A., Buysse, D. J., & Matthews, K. A. (2017). Marital conflict and nocturnal blood pressure dipping in military couples. Health Psychology, 36, 31–34.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Welch, B. L. (1947). The generalization of Student's problem when several different population variances are involved. Biometrika, 34, 28–35.  https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/34.1-2.28 Google Scholar
  68. Whealin, J., Yoneda, A., Nelson, D., Hilmes, T. S., Kawasaki, M. M., & Yan, O. H. (2017). A culturally adapted family intervention for rural Pacific Island veterans with PTSD. Psychological Services, 14, 295–306.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wright, B. D., & Linacre, J. M. (1994). Reasonable mean-square fit values. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 8, 370.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Michigan Public Health InstituteOkemosUSA
  3. 3.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations