Cluster Computing

, Volume 22, Supplement 6, pp 14973–14981 | Cite as

Modeling and analysis of a bus fire accident for evaluation of fire safety door using the fire dynamics simulator

  • Cherng-Shing Lin
  • Jui-Pei HsuEmail author


The fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is a program based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and is used extensively by fire research staff. Currently, it is used widely in various fields, including reconstruction simulations of fire scenes. Buses can be designed to carry many passengers, and in public places, incidents such as bus fires impose a relatively high threat to assets and lives. Hence, it is common to witness substantial casualties when a bus fire occurs. This paper investigates an incident that occurred on July 19, 2016 in Taiwan, where in a sightseeing tour bus caught fire on a highway, leading to the death of all 26 passengers on board. The investigation results show that the deaths were due to closed emergency exits and thick smoke and that the opening of emergency doors and the number of emergency exits significantly influence the success of evacuation. Furthermore, we analyze this case of vehicle fires installing an interior safety door, separating a bus into isolated categories or compartments helps in delaying the spread of fire. These results can provide some valuable information on risk evaluation and prevention of vehicle fires.


Fire Numerical simulation Temperature Smoke Evacuation Fractional effective dose Safety door 


  1. 1.
    McGrattan, K., Hostikka, S., McDermott, R., Floyd, J., Weinschenk, C., Overholt, K.: Fire Dynamics Simulator—User’s Guide. NIST Special Publ. 1019, Sixth Edition, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chi, J.-H.: Using thermal analysis experiment and Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to reconstruct an arson fire scene. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 113, 641–648 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glasa, J., Valasek, L., Halada, L., Weisenpacher, P.: Modelling of impact of fire on safe people evacuation in tunnel. J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 490, 012067 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hadjisophocleous, G., Jia, Q.: Comparison of FDS prediction of smoke movement in a 10-storey building with experimental data. Fire Technol. 45, 163–177 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shen, T.-S., Huang, Y.-H., Chien, S.-W.: Using fire dynamic simulation (FDS) to reconstruct an arson fire scene. Build. Environ. 43, 1036–1045 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang, P., Yao, G., Tan, X.: Modeling carbon black trace in building fire and its validation. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 49, 35–48 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horváth, I., van Beeck, J., Merci, B.: Full-scale and reduced-scale tests on smoke movement in case of car park fire. Fire Saf. J. 57, 35–43 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lemaire, T., Kenyon, Y.: Large scale fire tests in the second benelux tunnel. Fire Technol. 42, 329–350 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, J., Zhang, K., Guo, J., Jiang, K.: Reasons analyzing of school bus accidents in China. Proc. Eng. 45, 841–846 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abulhassan, Y., Davis, J., Sesek, R., Gallagher, S., Schall, M.: Establishing school bus baseline emergency evacuation times for elementary school students. Saf. Sci. 89, 249–255 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maputi, E.: Conceptual design of a bus emergency exit ramp. Int. J. Sci. Res. 3, 189–192 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Traina, N., Kerber, S., Kyritsis, D.C., Horn, G.P.: Occupant tenability in single family homes: part I—impact of structure type, fire location and interior doors prior to fire department arrival. Fire Technol. 53, 1589–1610 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Izydorczyk, D., Sędłak, B., Papis, B., Turkowski, P.: Doors with specific fire resistance class. Proc. Eng. 172, 417–525 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Traina, N., Kerber, S., Kyritsis, D.C., Horn, G.P.: Occupant tenability in single family homes: part I—Impact of Structure Type, fire location and interior doors prior to fire department arrival. Fire Technol. 53, 1589–1610 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gianfranco Caruso, L.F.: Numerical simulation of a fire scenario. CFD Lett. 6, 131–143 (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Korhonen, T.: Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation: FDS + Evac, Technical Reference and User’s Guide; FDS 6.1.2, Evac 2.5.0 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wagner, N., Agrawal, V.: An agent-based simulation system for concert venue crowd evacuation modeling in the presence of a fire disaster. Expert Syst. Appl. 41, 2807–2815 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lo, S.M., Wang, W.L., Liu, S.B., Ma, J.: Using agent-based simulation model for studying fire escape process in metro stations. Proc. Comput. Sci. 32, 388–396 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Purser, D.A.: Toxicity assessment of combustion products. In: SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, 3rd edn. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shock 26 dead in Taiwan tourist bus fire, Apple Daily, 2016.07.20Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haack, A.: Fire protection in traffic tunnels: general aspects and results of the EUREKA project. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol. 13(4), 377–381 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringYuan Ze UniversityTaoyuan CityTaiwan

Personalised recommendations