Cluster Computing

, Volume 22, Supplement 3, pp 6371–6381 | Cite as

Preference-driven yield-and-quality optimization for high-sulfur gas sweetening process by extreme learning machine model

  • Jianfeng Shang
  • Xiaohua GuEmail author
  • Liping Yang
  • Haihong Tang
  • Kun Zhang
  • Zhongli Ji


Yield and quality, as the two most important output variables of high-sulfur gas (HSG) sweetening process, are affected by the operating parameters. The HSG sweetening process involves more than ten operating parameters, so the relationship between the parameters and output variables is complex, non-linear and strong coupling. This paper tries to use data mining methods to explore this relationship and apply it to optimize the yield and quality. First, a ten (inputs)-to-three (outputs) model is established by extreme learning machine (ELM). Then, a preference-driven multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to maximize the yield while ensuring that the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the treated gas are close to but not exceeding 3% and 4 ppm respectively. The proposed method is validated in a HSG purification plant in southwest China. A set of 3044 production data is collected and randomly divided into 80 and 20% for training and testing. The results show that the established ELM model is in good agreement with the actual operation data. The maximum deviation of mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and average absolute deviation percent (AAD %) of the predictions in three scenarios are 0.2047, 0.3177 and 7.91% respectively. Moreover, the optimization based on the obtained ELM model is also validated. In particular, the H2S concentration and CO2 concentration in the treated gas are significantly higher than those before optimization, but have not exceeding the limits. Thus, the consumptions of energy and amine solvents decreased, while the yield increased.


Yield-and-quality optimization High-sulfur gas sweetening process Extreme learning machine Preference-driven multi-objective optimization Data mining 



High-sulfur gas


Extreme learning machine


Mean square error


Mean absolute error


Average absolute deviation percent




Artificial intelligence


Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II


Neural networks


Support vector machine


Single-hidden layer feedforward neural networks


Particle swarm optimization


Physical programming


Highly desirable








Highly undesirable

List of symbols

\(x_{i} ,t_{i}\)

Arbitrary distinct samples


Output weight of the ith hidden layer node connected with the output neuron


Output weight of the input neuron connected with the ith hidden layer node


Bias of the ith hidden layer node


Output value corresponding to the jth input sample

\(H^{\dag }\)

Moore–Penrose generalized inverse of matrix H


Model predictions


Real production data


Number of production data

\(R_{{{\text{lean}} . {\text{tail}}}}\)

Lean amine flowrate to tail gas absorber (t/h)

\(R_{{{\text{lean}} . 2 {\text{nd}}}}\)

Inlet lean amine flowrate of 2nd absorber (t/h)


Feed gas flowrate (kNm3/h)


Semi-rich amine flowrate (t/h)

\(T_{{{\text{lean}} . {\text{tail}}}}\)

Inlet lean amine temperature of 1st absorber(oC)

\(T_{{{\text{lean}} . 2 {\text{nd}}}}\)

Inlet lean amine temperature of 2nd absorber(oC)


Amine flash drum pressure (MPa)


Steam flowrate of reboiler A (t/h)


Steam flowrate of reboiler B (t/h)


Steam flowrate of preheater (t/h)


H2S concentration in the treated gas (ppm)

\(C_{CO 2}\)

CO2 concentration in the treated gas (mol%)


Treated gas flowrate (kNm3/h)



This work was supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China [Grant Number 2016ZX05017004]; the Chongqing National Science Foundation [Grant Number cstc2015jcyjBX0089]; the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number 51404051] and the Research Foundation of Chongqing University of Science and Technology [Grant Number CK2016Z16].


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianfeng Shang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaohua Gu
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Liping Yang
    • 5
  • Haihong Tang
    • 4
  • Kun Zhang
    • 4
  • Zhongli Ji
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Transportation EngineeringChina University of PetroleumBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Sinopec Zhongyuan Oilfield Puguang BranchSichuanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan ProvinceSichuan University of Science and EngineeringZigongPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Electrical and Information EngineeringChongqing University of Science and TechnologyChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of ChinaChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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