Cluster Computing

, Volume 22, Supplement 3, pp 7515–7523 | Cite as

Secondary parallel automatic parking of endpoint regionalization based on genetic algorithm

  • Bo SuEmail author
  • Junhan Yang
  • Lijuan Li
  • Yu Wang


Automatic parking technology can overcome the difficulties of drivers in tight spaces during parking. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy of parallel parking in tight spaces, a secondary parallel automatic parking method of endpoint regionalization based on genetic algorithm is proposed. Firstly, a secondary parallel parking method of endpoint regionalization is proposed and a collision constraint function is established by planning the secondary parallel automatic parking path and analyzing the possible collisions during parking. Secondly, the secondary parallel parking path is planed by estimating the minimum parking length and designing a reasonable terminal area for parking. The simulation made on MATLAB verifies the feasibility of the method. In order to improve the efficiency of secondary parallel automatic parking of endpoint regionalization and achieve the shortest automatic parking path, a parking path function with constraint conditions is established in this paper and optimizing is done by taking the parking path function as target function with genetic algorithm. The simulation results show that the secondary parallel automatic parking of endpoint regionalization based on genetic algorithm can enable cars to park in the designed terminal area correctly without collision and the parking path is shortened by 4.1% compared with that of the original one.


Automotive engineering Automatic parking Endpoint regionalization Genetic algorithm Parking path function Optimizing 



This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and Cultivating Fund of Xi’an University of Science and Technology (No. 201745).


  1. 1.
    Reeds, J.A., Shepp, L.A.: Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and back wards. Pac. J. Math. 145(2), 367–393 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paromtchik, I.E., Laugier, C.: Autonomous parallel parking of nonholomic vehicles. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Minneapolis, MN, April, pp. 3117–3122 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paromtchik, I.E., Laugier, C.: Motion generation and control for parking an autonomous vehicles. In: Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Tokyo, September, pp. 13–18 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Müller, B., Deutscher, J., Grodde, S.: Trajectory generation and feed forward Control for parking a car. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Control Applications, Munich, pp. 163–168 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Müller, B., Deutscher, J., Grodde, S.: Continuous curvature trajectory design and feed forward control for parking a car. Control Syst. Technol. 15(3), 541–553 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, H., Guo, K.H., Song, X.L.: Trajectory planning of automatic vertical parking based on spline theory. J. Hunan Univ. 39(7), 25–30 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, H.: Path Planning and Path Tracking Control of Automatic Parking System. Hunan University, Changsha (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Demirli, K., Khoshnejad, M.: Autonomous parallel parking of a car-like mobile robot by a neuro-fuzzy sensor-based controller. Fuzzy Sets Syst. 160(19), 2876–2891 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao, Y.N., Emmanuel, G., Collins, J.: Robust automatic parallel parking in tight spaces via fuzzy logic. Robot. Auton. Syst. 51, 111–127 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rigatos, G.G., Tzafetas, S.G., Evanglidis, G.J.: Reactive parking control of nonholonomic vehicles via a fuzzy learning automation. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Control Theory Application, vol. 148, pp. 169–179 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guo, K.H., Jiang, H., Zhang, J.W.: Design of automatic parallel parking steering controller based on fuzzy logic. Jilin Univ. J. 39(2), 236–240 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guo, K.H., Jiang, H., Zhang, J.W.: Design of automatic parallel parking steering controller based on path planning. Jilin Univ. J. 41(2), 293–297 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zheng, G., Liang, Z., Li, J.: Optimization of an intelligent controller for parallel autonomous parking. Talkomnika Indones. J. Electr. Eng. 11(2), 1069–1075 (2012)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maravall, D., de Lope, J.: Multi-objective dynamic optimization with genetic algorithms for automatic parking. Soft Comput. 11(3), 249–257 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hanafy, M., Gomaa, M.M., Taher, M.: Development of a technology for car’s auto-parking using swarm search-based fuzzy control system. Int. J. Model. Identif. Control 17(1), 85–97 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin, Z.Z., Li, Q., Liang, Y.J., et al.: Parallel parking algorithm based on autonomous path planning. Comput. Util. Res. 29(5), 1713–1715 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tu, Y.Q., Cheng, H., Yang, H.Y.: Autonomous parking method based on human-simulated intelligent control. Control Eng. 21(2), 161–167 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, L., Zhu, K.: Variable radius parking path study based on the shortest path. Auto. Sci. Tech. (6), 51–57 (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Aerospace Science and TechnologyXidian UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.School of ComputerXi’an University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  3. 3.LinkedIn CorporationSunnyvaleUSA

Personalised recommendations