Cluster Computing

, Volume 22, Supplement 5, pp 11295–11305 | Cite as

Enhancing 4G Co-existence with Wi-Fi/IoT using cognitive radio

  • A. C. SumathiEmail author
  • R. Vidhyapriya
  • C. Vivekanandan
  • Arun Kumar Sangaiah


The advanced cellular network, long term evolution (LTE) that presently operates in licensed spectrum has been extended to unlicensed LTE (U-LTE) to improve data rate and spectral efficiency by utilizing unlicensed spectrum. Carrier aggregation of 3GPPLTE-A supports the aggregation of licensed and unlicensed spectrum in small and femto cells to provide better user experience. The proposed work consists of two objectives, first to accomplish the listen-before-talk (LBT) regulatory requirement of radio communication in U-LTE and the second to enhance their co-existence with Wi-Fi/IoT users in a non-interference style by reducing the back-off rate of Wi-Fi. The importance of spectrum utilization by the incumbent users of unlicensed band for the upcoming Internet of Things communications is also a key consideration in this work. The recently evolved intelligent technology viz. Cognitive radio (CR) is applied in the proposed system model to meet the objectives. A ground research is done in a simulation environment of LTE signals and 5 GHz band to evaluate the back-off rate of Wi-Fi. A comparative performance analysis between proposed and existing systems are also done and presented in this paper.


LTE U-LTE Cognitive radio Carrier aggregation Coexistence issues IoT communications-5 GHz band 


  1. 1.
    3GPP RP-140808.: Review of Regulatory Requirements for Unlicensed Spectrum, Alcatel-Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, Ericcson, Huawei, HiSilicon, IASEI, LG, Nokia, NSN, Qualcomm, NTT DocomoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flynn, K.: The Mobile Broadband Standard. Retrieved from (n.d.)
  3. 3.
    Flynn, K.: The Mobile Broadband Standard. Retrieved from (n.d.)
  4. 4.
    Flynn, K.: The Mobile Broadband Standard. Retrieved from (n.d.)
  5. 5.
    Jon Brodkin - Feb 22, 2017 8:53 pm UTC.: T-Mobile promises big LTE boost from 5GHz Wi-Fi frequencies. Retrieved from (2017)
  6. 6.
    U-LTE: Unlicensed Spectrum Utilization of LTE—Huawei. Retrieved from (n.d.)
  7. 7.
    Muhammad Yahya, Working Follow.: LTE Carrier Aggregation Technology Development and Deployment Worldwi. Retrieved from files/ 8414/ 1471/2230/4G_Americas_Carrier_Aggregation_FINALv1_0_3.pdf (2015)
  8. 8.
    Chen, C., Liu, X., Qiu, T., Liu, L., Sangaiah, A.K.: Latency estimation based on traffic density for video streaming in the internet of vehicles. Comput. Commun. 111, 176–186 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.: Qualcomm Research LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum. Retrieved from (2014)
  10. 10.
    Nokia LTE for unlicensed spectrum— Retrieved from (2014)
  11. 11.
    Flynn, K.: The Mobile Broadband Standard. Retrieved from (n.d.)
  12. 12.
    Haykin, S.: Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(2), 201–220 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Das, D., Das, S.: Primary user emulation attack in cognitive radio networks: a survey. IRACST-Int. J. Comput. Netw. Wirel. Commun. 3(3), 312–318 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stevenson, C.R., Chouinard, G., Lei, Z., Hu, W., Shellhammer, S.J., Caldwell, W.: IEEE 802.22: the first cognitive radio wireless regional area network standard. IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 130–138 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qiu, T., Zhang, Y., Qiao, D., Zhang, X., Wymore, M.L., Sangaiah, A.K.: A robust time synchronization scheme for industrial internet of things. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inf. (2017)
  16. 16.
    Medhane, D.V., Sangaiah, A.K.: ESCAPE: effective scalable clustering approach for parallel execution of continuous position-based queries in position monitoring applications. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Comput. (2017)
  17. 17.
    Zamblé, R., Babri, M., Oumtanaga, S., Barry, B., Lishou, C.: Peaceful coexistence of IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16 standards in 5GHz unlicensed bands. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. Int. J. Electr. Comput. Energ. Electron. Commun. Eng. 4(7), 1054–1059 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mehta, T., Kumar, N., Saini, S.S.: Comparison of spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio networks. Int. J. Electron. Commun. Technol. 4(3), 31–36 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garhwal, A., Bhattacharya, P.P.: A survey on spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Commun. Netw. 1(2), 196–206 (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    AnwerAdel AlDulaimi.: Cognitive Radio Systems in LTE Networks. Doctoral thesis, BrunelUniversity, UK. Retrieved from (2012)
  21. 21.
    Al-Rubaye, S.: Radio Network management in Cognitive LTE FemtoCell Systems. Doctoral thesis, Brunel University, UK. Retrieved from (2013)
  22. 22.
    Karunakaran, P., Wagner, T., Scherb, A., Gerstacker, W.: Sensing for spectrum sharing in cognitive LTE-A cellular networks. In: 2014 IEEE, Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). IEEE, pp. 565–570 (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nagieb, M., Shokair, M.: Improvement of coverage and mobility in LTE-A femto-cell based on cognitive radio network. J. Comput. Appl. 86(11), 37–40 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Singh, G., Mehta, P.: Review on analysis of LTE and cognitive radio network using OFDM signal. Int. J. Recent Innov. Trends Comput. Commun. 2(8), 1–4 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asheralieva, A., Mahata, K.: A two-step resource allocation procedure for LTE-based cognitive radio network. Comput. Netw. 59, 137–152 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sumathi, A.C., Priya, M., Vidhyapriya, R.: Realization of LBT for Co-existence of U-LTE with Wi-Fi using cognitive radio. In: International Conference on Innovative Trends in Electronics Communication and Applications, pp. 153–158 (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Asheralieva, A., Mahata, K.: Resource allocation for LTE-based cognitive radio network with queue stability and interference constraints. Phys. Commun. 14, 1–13 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ETSI, ERM TG28.: Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); short range devices (SRD); radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW. European harmonized standard EN 300.220: v2Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jin, Z., Anand, S., Subbalakshmi, K. P.: Performance analysis of dynamic spectrum access networks under primary user emulation attacks. In: 2010 IEEE, Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), pp. 1–5 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringPSG Institute of Technology and Applied ResearchCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Information TechnologyPSG College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringSNS College of EngineeringCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.School of Computing Science and EngineeringVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

Personalised recommendations