Effect of altitude on climate–growth relationships of Chinese white pine (Pinus armandii) in the northern Funiu Mountain, central China
We developed three tree-ring width chronologies of Chinese white pine (Pinus armandii) along an altitudinal gradient on the same slope of the northern Funiu Mountain, central China. Chronological statistics indicate that there are higher mean sensitivity (M.S.) and standard deviation (S.D.) at high-altitude site while higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) at low-altitude site. Correlation analyses between chronologies and climate factors indicate that temperature is the main limiting factor, and discrepant response on tree growth exists at different altitudes. Mean and maximum temperatures in May have significant negative correlations with tree growth at mid and high altitudes, while all temperatures in April show significant positive correlations at high altitude and minimum temperature in August shows significant positive correlation at low-altitude site. It is evident that the limit of temperatures in April and May to tree growth strengthened with increasing altitude. Tree growth also shows significant positive correlations with precipitation in May at high altitude, with precipitation from prior December to current February and scPDSI (self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index) from prior July to current February and May at mid altitude and relative humidity in February and June and scPDSI in current June at low-altitude site. Stability of climate–growth responses by moving correlation analyses shows continuous significant negative correlations with mean and maximum temperature in May and significant positive correlation with precipitation in May at high and low altitudes since 2000 but discontinuously significant negative correlation with precipitation in July–September before 2003 and discontinuously significant positive correlation with precipitation from prior December to current February after 1995. The strong significant positive correlations with scPDSI from prior November to current June since 1990 may indicate that temperature had induced drought stress on tree radial growth at mid-altitude site.
We thank Baiyunshan National Nature Reserve Bureau for the great help in the fieldwork.
The research was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41671042) and Henan Province Science Foundation (No. 162300410010).
- Bräuning A (2001) Combined view of various tree ring parameters from different forest habitats in Tibet for the reconstruction of seasonal aspects of Asian Monsoon variability. Palaeobotanist 50:1–12Google Scholar
- Cai QF, Liu Y (2015) Climatic responses of Pinus bungeana Zucc and Pinus armandii Franch in Mt. Zhongtiao, Shanxi Province, and May-July temperature variations since 1920. J Earth Environ 6(4):208–218 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Chen F, Yuan YJ, Wei WS, Zhang TW, Shang HM, Yu SL (2015a) Divergent response of tree-ring width and maximum latewood density of Abies faxoniana to warming trends at the timberline of the western Qinling mountains and northeastern Tibetan plateau, China. Silva Fenn 49(4):1155–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cook ER, Holmes RL (1986) Users manual for ARSTAN. Laboratory of Tree-ring Research, University of Arizona, TucsonGoogle Scholar
- Cook ER, Kairiukstis LA (eds) (1990) Methods of dendrochronology: applications in the environmental sciences. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Grissino-Mayer HD (2001) Evaluating crossdating accuracy: a manual and tutorial for the computer program COFECHA. Tree-Ring Res 57(2):205–221Google Scholar
- Holmes RL (1983) Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bull 43:69–75Google Scholar
- Körner C (2012) Alpine treelines: functional ecology of the global high elevation tree limits. SpringerGoogle Scholar
- Liu HB, Shao XM, Huang L (2002) Reconstruction of early-summer drought indices in mid-north region of China after 1500 using tree ring chronologies. Quat Sci 22(3):220–229 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Peng JF, Gou XH, Chen FH, Fang KY, Zhang F (2010) Influences of slope aspect on the growth of Sabina przewalskii along an elevation gradient in China’s Qinghai Province. Chin J Plant Ecol 34(5):517–525 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Schweingruber FH (1996) Tree ring and environmental dendroecology. Haupt BernGoogle Scholar
- Shi JF, Lu HY, Wan JD, Li SF, Nie HS (2009) Winter-half year temperature reconstruction of the last century using Pinus armandii Franch. tree-ring width chronologies in the eastern Qinling Mountains. Quat Sci 29:831–836 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Stokes MA, Smiley TL (1968) An introduction to tree ring dating. the University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Tian QH, Liu Y, Cai QF, Bao G, Wang WP, Xue WL, Zhu WJ, Song HM, Lei Y (2009) The maximum temperature of May−July inferred from tree-ring in Funiu Mountain since 1874 AD. Acta Geograph Sin 64:879–887 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Tian QH, Zhou XJ, Liu Y, Zhao P (2011) Historical late-spring to early-summer temperature at Qinling Mountain range inferred from multi-sites tree-ring chronologies, and their relationship with Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature. Quat Sci 31(5):864–872 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang T, Shen LF, Ye YZ, Gao HQ, Xu M (2010) Response analysis between climate change and tree-ring widths of Pinus armandi in Funiu Mountain. Henan Sci 12:16–19 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang T, Li C, Zhang H, Ren SY, Li LX, Pan N, Yuan ZL, Ye YZ (2016) Response of conifer trees radial growth to climate change in Baotianman National Nature Reserve, central China. Acta Ecol Sin 36(17):5324–5332 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Xu K, Wang XH, Yu MT, Wang B, Guan WB (2011) Response of chronology of Pinus armandi to eco-climate indicator in Liupan Mountain, Ningxia Province. Sci Soil and Water Cons 9(5):86–90 (in Chinese)Google Scholar