Perceived Invalidation in Adolescent Borderline Personality Disorder: An Investigation of Parallel Reports of Caregiver Responses to Negative Emotions
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Childhood experiences of emotional invalidation are commonly reported by adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study aimed to compare perceptions of emotional invalidation between adolescents with and adolescents without BPD, and their primary caregivers. Participants were 51 adolescents subdivided into a clinical group of 26 adolescents with BPD and a community-control group of 25 adolescents, each with their primary caregivers. To examine perceptions of invalidation, adolescents and caregivers completed parallel reports assessing caregiver responses to adolescents’ negative emotions. Adolescents with BPD reported more punitive and less supportive responses to their negative emotions than their caregivers. In the control group, by contrast, differences between caregiver and adolescent reports were due to caregivers rating themselves more harshly than did adolescents. Findings demonstrated that adolescents with BPD perceived their caregivers to be relatively less supportive and more invalidating than did adolescents without BPD. Results highlight the importance of adolescents’ subjective experiences of caregiving to enduring borderline psychopathology.
KeywordsPerceived invalidation Borderline personality disorder Adolescence Parenting Parallel reports
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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