The Effect of MPP+ on the Viability of Primary Cortical Astrocytes Isolated from Female and Male Wistar Rats of Different Ages
- 114 Downloads
Although age is known to be the main risk for developing chronic and neurodegenerative diseases, those illnesses have a different prevalence depending on the sex. It has been questioned whether genetic and hormonal differences are preserved in primary cultures from individuals of different genders. Therefore, here we studied the susceptibility of astrocytes, obtained from female and male Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 9 and 24 months-old), to the well-known toxin MPP+ after 2 weeks in vitro, at different concentrations and exposure times. Our results showed that there are no variances due to gender, but that there are important differences associated to age in terms of the viability against this toxin.
KeywordsAstrocytes Rats Sex Gender Age MPP+
The authors thank Dr. Wilhelmina Sudarsky for English editing. This work was supported by CONACyT grant FON.INST/298/2016.
Alarcón-Aguilar A and Luna-López A performed the experiments and statistics. López-Diazguerrero NE, Alarcón-Aguilar A and Konigsberg M designed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Alarcón-Aguilar A, Luna-López A, Ventura-Gallegos JL, Lazzarini R, Galván-Arzate S, González-Puertos VY, Morán J, Santamaría A, Konigsberg M (2014) Primary cultured astrocytes from old rats are capable to activate the Nrf2 response against MPP + toxicity after tBHQ pre-treatment. Neurobiol Aging 35(8):1901–1912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.01.143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jaber SM, Bordt EA, Bhatt NM, Lewis DM, Gerecht S, Fiskum G, Polster BM (2018) Sex differences in the mitochondrial bioenergetics of astrocytes but not microglia at a physiologically relevant brain oxygen tension. Neurochem Int 117:82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2017.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lazarus RC, Buonora JE, Jacobowitz DM, Mueller GP (2015) Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences. Free Radic Biol Med 78:89–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.10.507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lin DT, Wu J, Holstein D, Upadhyay G, Rourk W, Muller E, Lechleiter JD (2007) Ca2+ signaling, mitochondria and sensitivity to oxidative stress in aging astrocytes. Neurobiol Aging 28:99–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- López-Diazguerrero NE, López-Araiza H, Conde-Pérezprina JC, Bucio L, Cárdenas MC, Ventura JL, Covarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Ruiz MC, Zentella A, Konigsberg M (2006) Bcl-2 protects against oxidative stress while inducing premature senescence. Free Rad Biol Med 40:1161–1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mangold CA, Wronowski B, Du M, Masser DR, Hadad N, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Ford MM, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM (2017) Sexually divergent induction of microglialassociated neuroinflammation with hippocampal aging. J Neuroinflamm 14(1):141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-0920-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miller LR, Marks C, Becker JB, Hurn PD, Chen WJ, Woodruff T, McCarthy MM, Sohrabji F, Schiebinger L, Wetherington CL, Makris S, Arnold AP, Einstein G, Miller VM, Sandberg K, Maier S, Cornelison TL, Clayton JA (2017) Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. FASEB J 31(1):29–34. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201600781R CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Morrison HW, Filosa JA (2016) Sex differences in astrocyte and microglia responses immediately following middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult mice. Neuroscience 339:85–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.09.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosario ER, Chang L, Head EH, Stanczyk FZ, Pike CJ (2011) Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 32(4):604–613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seifrtova M, Havelek R, Soukup T, Filipova A, Mokry J, Rezacova M (2013) Mitoxantrone ability to induce premature senescence in human dental pulp stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. J Physiol Pharmacol 64(2):255–266Google Scholar
- Valentino RJ, Bangasser DA (2016) Sex-biased cellular signaling: molecular basis for sex differences in neuropsychiatric diseases. Dialog Clin Neurosci 18(4):385–393Google Scholar