The focus of this study was on the preparation of porous bio-based matrix with a view to fabricating the environment-friendly supercapacitors from two sustainable materials, cellulose acetate (CA) and chitosan (CS). The strategy used is, first preparing a tri-hybrid of rGO/NiO/Fe3O4 (rNF) particles followed by mixing it into CA/CS (CC), as prepared CC/rNF was then dipped into aniline. After the impregnation by aniline, the polymerization proceeded to get a CA/CS/PANI/rNF (CCPRNF) electrode. The prepared electrode shows excellent properties such as high conductivity (7.1 × 10–2 S/cm), an areal capacitance of 16.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and 88% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. The symmetric device fabricated from 15% CCPRNF achieved areal capacitance of 5.5 mF/cm2 (scan rate 20 mV/s). Herein, we suggest a new approach for the construction of environment-friendly, flexible, conducting, 3D scaffold-like porous electrodes for supercapacitors using CA/CS through simple “phase inversion and in-situ polymerization method”.
These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdolmohammad-Zadeh H, Ayazi Z, Naghdi Z (2019) Nickel oxide/chitosan nano-composite as a magnetic adsorbent for preconcentration of Zn(II) ions. J Magn Magn Mater 488:165311
Adhikari D, Oraon R, Tiwari S, Lee JH, Nayak GC (2015) Effect of waste cellulose fiber on charge storage capacity of polypyrrole and graphene/polypyrrole electrodes for supercapacitor application. RSC Adv 5:27347–27355
Al-nafiey A, Kumar A, Kumar M, Addad A, Sieber B, Szunerits S, Boukherroub R, Jain SL (2017) Nickel oxide nanoparticles grafted on reduced graphene oxide (rGO/NiO) as efficient photocatalyst for reduction of nitroaromatics under visible light irradiation. J Photoch Photobiol A 336:198–207
Aziz SB, Hamsan MH, Brza MA, Kadir MFZ, Abdulwahid RT, Ghareeb HO, Woo HJ (2019a) Fabrication of energy storage EDLC device based on CS: PEO polymer blend electrolytes with high Li+ ion transference number. Results Phys 15:102584
Aziz SB, Hamsan MH, Abdullah RM, Kadir MFZ (2019b) A promising polymer blend electrolytes based on chitosan: methyl cellulose for EDLC application with high specific capacitance and energy density. Molecules 24(13):2503
Chen T, Dai L (2013) Carbon nanomaterials for high- performance supercapacitors. Mater Today 16:272–280
Das AK, Maitra A, Karan SK, Ber R, Paria S, Khatua BB (2017) Polyaniline/α-Ni(OH)2 /iron oxide-doped reduced graphene oxide-based hybrid electrode material. J Appl Electrochem 47:531–546
Ding Y, Bai W, Sun J, Wu Y, Memon MA, Wang C, Liu C, Huang Y, Geng J (2016) Cellulose tailored anatase TiO2 nanospindles in three-dimensional graphene composites for high-performance supercapacitors. ACS Appl Mater Inter 8:12165–12175
Dong W, Niu X, Ji X, Chen Y, Kong L, Kang L, Ran F (2019a) Transferring Electrochemically Active Nanomaterials into a Flexible Membrane Electrode via Slow Phase Separation Method Induced by Water Vapor. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7:4295–4306
Dong W, Tan Y, Liu Y, Kong L, Kang L, Ran F (2019b) Whole-polymers electrode membrane based on the interfacial polymerization and intermacromolecular force between polyaniline and polyethersulfone for flexible supercapacitors. Electrochim Acta 318:130–141
Fei H, Saha N, Kazantseva N, Moucka R, Cheng Q, Saha P (2017) A highly flexible supercapacitor based on MnO2/RGO nanosheets and bacterial cellulose-filled gel electrolyte. Materials 10:1–13
French AD (2017) Glucose, not cellobiose, is the repeating unit of cellulose and why that is important. Cellulose 24:4605–4609
Haldorai Y, Shim J-J (2014) An efficient removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto chitosan/MgO composite: A novel reusable adsorbent. Appl Surf Sci 292:447–453
Ibrahim MM, Famy TYA, Salaheldin EI, Mobarak F, Youssef MA, Mabrook MR (2015) Role of tosyl cellulose acetate as potential carrier for controlled drug release. Life Sci J 12:127–133
Jin L, Zeng Z, Kuddannaya S, Wu D, Zhang Y, Wang Z (2016) Biocompatible, free-standing film composed of bacterial cellulose nanofibers-graphene composite. ACS Appl Mater Interaces 8:1011–1018
Jun G, Jinhua Z, Tianbao L, Yanfen P, Jie C (2017) Two-step controllable preparation of NiO nanocrystals anchored reduced graphene oxide sheets and their electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. New J Chem 41:10695–10702
Jung YJ, An BJ, Choi HW, Kim HS, Lee YH (2007) Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cellulose acetate blend film. J Korean Soc Dyers Finish 19:10–17
Jyothibasu JP, Kuo D-W, Lee R-H (2019) Flexible and freestanding electrodes based on polypyrrole/carbon nanotube/cellulose composites for supercapacitor application. Cellulose 7:4495–4513
Kamal M, Abdelrazek EM, Sellow NM, Abdelghany AM (2018) Synthesis and optimization of novel chitosan/cellulose acetate natural polymer membrane for water treatment. J Adv Phys 14:5303–5311
Kausik A, Solanki PR, Ansari AA, Sumana G, Ahmad S, Malhotra BD (2009) Iron oxide-chitosan nanobiocomposite for urea sensor. Sensor Actuator B 138:572–580
Khosrozadeh A, Darabi MA, Xing M, Wang Q (2016) Flexible electrode design:fabrication of freestanding polyaniline-based composite films for high-performance supercapacitors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:11379–11389
Kumar NA, Choi H, Shin YR, Chang DW, Dai L, Baek JB (2012) Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors. ACS Nano 6:1715–1723
Kumar R, Singh RK, Vaz AR, Savu R, Moshkalev SA (2017) Self-assembled and one-step synthesis of interconnected 3d network of Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets hybrid for high-performance supercapacitor electrode. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:8880–8890
Li B, Zheng M, Xue H, Pang H (2016a) High performance electrochemical capacitor materials focusing on nickel based materials. Inorg Chem Front 3:175–202
Li N, Li X, Yang C, Wang F, Li J, Wang H, Chen C, Liu S, Pan Y, Li D (2016b) Fabrication of a flexible free-standing film electrode composed of polypyrrole coated cellulose nanofibers/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite for supercapacitors. RSC Adv 6:86744–86751
Li Q, Wei Q, Xie L, Chen C, Lu C, Su F-Y, Zhou P (2016c) Layered NiO/reduced graphene oxide composites by heterogeneous assembly with enhanced performance as high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor cathode. RSC Adv 6:46548–46557
Liu C, Bai RSM (2006) Preparing highly porous chitosan /cellulose acetate blend hollow fibers as adsorptive membranes: effect of polymer concentrations and coagulant compositions. J Membr Sci 279:336–346
Liu Y, Zhou J, Tang J, Tang W (2015) Three-dimensional chemically bonded polypyrrole/ bacterial cellulose/graphene composites for high-performance supercapacitors. Chem Mater 27:7034–7041
Liu R, Ma L, Huang S, Mei J, Li E, Yuan G (2016) Large areal mass and high scalable and flexible cobalt oxide/graphene/bacterial cellulose electrode for supercapacitors. J Phys Chem C 120:28480–28488
Lv Y, Li L, Zhou Y, Yu M, Wang J, Liu J, Zhou J, Fan Z, Shao Z (2017) A cellulose-based hybrid 2D material aerogel for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor with high specific capacitance. RSC Adv 7:43512–43520
Mahalingam S, Ahn Y-H (2018) Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of rGO-Fe3O4-NiO hybrid nanocomposites synthesized by in-situ facile method for industrial wastewater treatment applications. New J Chem 42:4372–4383
Ouyang W, Sun J, Memon J, Wang C, Geng J, Huang Y (2013) Scalable preparation of three-dimensional porous structures of reduced graphene oxide/cellulose composites and their application in supercapacitors. Carbon 62:501–509
Pang H, Zhang Y-Z, Run Z, Lai W-Y, Huang W (2015) Amorphous nickel pyrophosphate microstructures for high-performance flexible solid-state electrochemical energy storage devices. Nano Energy 17:339–347
Saha S, Jana M, Samanta P, Murmu NC, Kim NH, Kuila T, Lee JH (2014) Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4/RGO composites and investigation of electrochemical performances for energy storage applications. RSC Adv 4:44777–44785
Singh J, Srivastava M, Kalita P, Malhotra BD (2012) A novel ternary NiFe2O4/CuO/FeO-chitosan nanocomposite as a cholesterol biosensor. Process Biochem 47:2189–2198
Sudha PN, Vinodini A, Kirubanandam S, Latha S, Gomathi T, Venkatesan J, Kim SK (2014) Fabrication of cellulose acetate-chitosan-polyethylene glycol ultrafiltration membrane for chromium removal. Der Pharm Lett 6:37–46
Vinodhini PA, Sangeetha K, Gomati T, Sudha PN, Jayachandran V, Anil S (2017) FTIR, XRD and DSC studies of nanochitosan, cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol blend ultrafiltration membranes. Int J Biol Macromol 104:1721–1729
Wang F, Wu X, Yuan X, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Fu L, Zhu Y, Zhou Q, Wu Y, Huang W (2017) Latest advances in supercapacitors : from new electrode materials to novel device designs. Chem Soc Rev 46:6816–6854
Wu W, Yang L, Chen S, Shao Y, Jing L, Zhao G, Wei H (2015) Core-shell nanospherical polypyrrole/graphene oxide composites for high performance supercapacitors. RSC Adv 5:91645–91653
Wu H, Zhang Y, Yuan W, Zhao Y, Luo S, Yuan X, Zheng L, Cheng L (2018) Highly flexible, foldable and stretchable Ni-Co layered double hydroxide/polyaniline/bacterial cellulose electrodes for high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors. J Mater Chem 6:16617–16626
Xu H, Zhang J, Chen Y, Lu H, Zhuang J (2014) Electrochemical polymerization of polyaniline doped with Cu2+ as the electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors. RSC Adv 4:5547–5552
Xue Q, Sun J, Huang Y, Zhu M, Pei Z, Li H, Wang Y, Li N, Zhang H, Zhi C (2017) Recent progress on flexible and wearable supercapacitors. Small 13:1701827
Yadav M, Rhee KY, Park SJ, Hui D (2014) Mechanical properties of Fe3O4/GO/chitosan composites. Compos Part B Eng 66:89–96
Yang C, Li D (2015) Flexible and foldable supercapacitor electrodes from the porous 3D network of cellulose nano fibers, carbon nanotubes and polyaniline. Mater Lett 155:2–5
Yang H, Ji X, Tan Y, Liu Y, Ran F (2019a) Modified supramolecular carboxylated chitosan as hydrogel electrolyte for quasi-solid-state supercapacitors. J Power Sour 441:227174
Yang H, Liu Y, Kong L, Kang L, Ran F (2019b) Biopolymer-based carboxylated chitosan hydrogel film crosslinked by HCl as gel polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. J Power Sour 426:47–54
Yasmeen S, Kabiraz MK, Saha B, Qadir M-D, Gafur M-D, Masum S (2016) Chromium (VI) ions removal from tannery effluent using chitosan-microcrystalline cellulose composite as adsorbent. IRJPAC 10(4):1–14
Yu L, Wan G, Peng X, Dou Z, Li X, Wang K, Lin S, Wang G (2016) Fabrication of carbon-coated NiO supported on graphene for high performance supercapacitors. RSC Adv 6:14199–14204
Zhang X, Jiang B, Xie Y, Du F (2014) One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for enhanced lithium storage. Indian J Chem 53:265–273
Zhao X, Ran F, Shen K, Yang Y, Wu J, Niu X, Kong L, Kang L, Chen S (2016) Facile fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membrane for highly flexible supercapacitors via in-situ phase separation of polyethersulfone. J Power Sour 329:104–114
Zhao D, Chen C, Zhang Q, Chen W, Liu S, Wang Q, Liu Y, Li J, Yu H (2017a) High performance, flexible, solid-state supercapacitors based on a renewable and biodegradable mesoporous cellulose membrane. Adv Energy Mater 7:1–9
Zhao X, Yang Y, Wu J, Tan Y, Liu Y, Kong L, Kang L, Ran F (2017b) A polymer-supported electrolyte-affinity hybrid membrane and modification of the amphiphilic block copolymer for use as a super-high flexible and high-performance supercapacitor. Sustain Energy Fuels 1:1074–1081
Zhou X, Qiao J, Yang L, Zhang J (2014) A review of graphene-based nanostructural materials for both catalyst supports and metal-free catalysts in pem fuel cell oxygen reduction reactions. Adv Energy Mater 4(1301523):1–25
Zhu J, Yang D, Yin Z, Yan Q, Zhang H (2014) Graphene and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications. Small 10:1–19
Zhu Y, Chu W, Wang N, Lin T, Yang W, Wen J, Zhao XS (2015) Self-assembled Ni/NiO/RGO heterostructures for high performance supercapacitor. RSC Adv 5:77958–77964
We gratefully acknowledge the Centre of Excellence (CoE) grant no. 25014/2/2015-PC-II (FTS:8418) funded by the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals (DCPC), Government of India.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Aswathy, N.R., Palai, A.K., Ramadoss, A. et al. Fabrication of cellulose acetate-chitosan based flexible 3D scaffold-like porous membrane for supercapacitor applications with PVA gel electrolyte. Cellulose (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03030-y
- Biopolymer blend
- 3D porous membrane
- Flexible electrodes