Biodegradation of lignin and the associated degradation pathway by psychrotrophic Arthrobacter sp. C2 from the cold region of China
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Degradation of most of the lignocellulose-rich agricultural residue in the cold regions of China is limited due to the cold climate. Lignin is the main component of lignocellulose, and the effective degradation of lignin is one of the most crucial processes in degrading lignocellulose. Psychrotrophic lignin-degrading bacteria and cold adapted ligninolytic enzymes have promising potential for the degradation and transformation of lignin, which are conducive to the resource utilization of lignocelluloses and energy-saving production under cold conditions. In this study, a newly psychrotrophic bacterial strain, Arthrobacter sp. C2, was isolated. The optimal enzyme activity conditions and lignin degradation pathways of C2 were investigated using sodium lignin sulfonate as substrate. The optimal conditions for enzyme activity included an initial pH of 6.74, a temperature of 14.9 °C, an incubation time of 6.87 days, and an inoculum size of 2.24%. Under the optimal conditions, the lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities and the degradation rate reached 29.8 U/L, 56.4 U/L and 40.1%, respectively. The biodegradation products including acids, phenols, aldehydes and alcohols were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, the potential degradation pathways were proposed according to the results obtained in this study and those presented in the relevant literature. This study not only provides valuable psychrotrophic strain resources for the sustainable utilization of lignocellulose in cold regions, but also supplies potential application options for energy-saving production of useful chemicals using cold adapted enzymes.
KeywordsLignin Psychrotrophic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Lignin peroxidase activity Manganese peroxidase activity Degradation pathway
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Response surface methodology
Lignin mineral salt medium
We would like to acknowledge “Northeast Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Swine Facilities Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, People’s Republic of China” for excellent technical assistance. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers 41771559).
CYL and HLZ designed the whole scheme of the study and conducted the experiments. CJ, YC, and XC performed experiments and XHS and JMW analyzed data. CJ and CYL wrote the manuscript, and YW and YTZ helped to revise. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
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