, Volume 26, Issue 18, pp 9819–9829 | Cite as

Strengthened cellulosic gels by the chemical gelation of cellulose via crosslinking with TEOS

  • Lili Zhang
  • Qing Zhang
  • Juan Yu
  • Jinxia Ma
  • Zhiguo WangEmail author
  • Yimin Fan
  • Shigenori Kuga
Original Research


Physical and chemical gels of cellulose were obtained by (1) coagulation of dimethyl sulfoxide (LiCl/DMSO) cellulose solution in ethanol and (2) crosslinking by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in non-aqueous medium under catalysis with ethylenediamine (EDA). Their structure and properties were studied. The highest storage modulus was 1.08 MPa (physical) and 4.04 MPa (chemical), respectively. The surface area (SBET) of cellulose chemical gels, which were composed of three-dimensional networks of long silica-modified fibrils, was as high as 296.8 m2/g. It is noticeable that it is not simple self-condensation of organic silicate that occurred but instead the ostensive silicic ester of cellulose was formed. This novel cellulose derivative and its chemical gelation may lead to a new category of cellulose-based organic–inorganic hybrid materials.

Graphic abstract


Cellulose hydrogel Chemical gelation Organic silicate Crosslinking 



We are grateful for the financial support from project funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31870565) as well as project funding from the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20181397), the Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of Nanjing Forestry University, the Postgraduate Research and Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYCX17_0845) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, College of Chemical EngineeringNanjing Forestry UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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