Advertisement

Cellulose

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Estimation of power transformer remaining life from activation energy and pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius equation

  • Ashkan Teymouri
  • Behrooz VahidiEmail author
Original Research
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

In 1936, Ekenstam derived an equation for cellulose ageing kinetic that linked DP to life and reaction rate. Later, Arrhenius obtained an equation that linked reaction rate to temperature, activation energy and coefficient A. Then, using these equations, the transformer life estimation has become possible. Activation energy is usually considered a constant value, but coefficient A depends on moisture and oxygen concentrations inside the transformer. So far, constant values for these factors have been used, but the transformer condition is constantly changing. In this paper, a new method is proposed for calculating activation energy and coefficient A for any transformer at any time according to the transformer condition for precise life estimation. Finally, for ten transformers with available data, life estimation is performed using the proposed method at the startup time of the transformers. Then, calculation results are compared with the transformer actual life to ensure the accuracy of the proposed method.

Graphic abstract

Keywords

Activation energy (E) Arrhenius equation Cellulose ageing Ekenstam equation Pre-exponential factor (coefficient A) Power transformers 

Notes

References

  1. CIGRE Brochure (2007) Ageing of cellulose in mineral-oil insulated transformers. CIGRE Task Force D.01.10, p 323Google Scholar
  2. CIGRE Brochure (2009) Thermal performance of transformers. CIGRE Working Group A2.24, p 393Google Scholar
  3. Cygan P, Laghari JR (1990) A review of electrical and thermal multi-stress aging models. In: Conference record of the 1990 IEEE international symposium on electrical insulation, 1990. IEEE, pp 15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1109/elinsl.1990.109698
  4. Dakin TW (1948) Electrical insulation deterioration treated as a chemical rate phenomenon. Trans Am Inst Electr Eng 67(1):113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1109/T-AIEE.1948.5059649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Emsley AM, Stevens GC (1994) Review of chemical indicators of degradation of cellulosic electrical paper insulation in oil-filled transformers. IEE Proc Sci Measur Technol 141(5):324–334.  https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-smt:19949957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Emsley AM, Xiao X, Heywood RJ, Ali M (2000) Degradation of cellulosic insulation in power transformers. Part 3: effects of oxygen and water on ageing in oil. IEE Proc Sci Measur Technol 147(3):115–119.  https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-smt:20000021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Franklin AM (1974) Simpler measurement of relative humidity in electrical insulating oils. Electr Rev 194(13):373–374Google Scholar
  8. Hoehlein I, Thiess U (2004) Determining the water content in transformers. Possibilities and application limits of moisture distribution curves. VGB Powertech 84(12):85–88Google Scholar
  9. IE Commission (2011) Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgears. IEC 60505, 11 July 2011Google Scholar
  10. Jalbert J, Gilbert R, Tétreault P, Morin B, Lessard-Déziel D (2007) Identification of a chemical indicator of the rupture of 1,4-β-glycosidic bonds of cellulose in an oil-impregnated insulating paper system. Cellulose 14(4):295–309.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-007-9124-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lampe W, Spicar E (1976) The oxygen-free transformer: reduced ageing by continuous degassing. Cigre Pap 12(0):1–17Google Scholar
  12. Lelekakis N, Martin D, Wijaya J (2012a) Ageing rate of paper insulation used in power transformers. Part 1: oil/paper system with low oxygen concentration. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tdei.2012.6396958 Google Scholar
  13. Lelekakis N, Martin D, Wijaya J (2012b) Ageing rate of paper insulation used in power transformers. Part 2: oil/paper system with medium and high oxygen concentration. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 19:6.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tdei.2012.6396960 Google Scholar
  14. Lundgaard LE, Hansen W, Linhjell D, Painter TJ (2004) Aging of oil-impregnated paper in power transformers. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 19(1):230–239.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2003.820175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lundgaard LE, Hansen W, Ingebrigtsen S, Linhjell D, Dahlund M (2005) Aging of Kraft paper by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. In: 2005 IEEE international conference on dielectric liquids, 2005. ICDL 2005. IEEE, pp 381–384.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icdl.2005.1490105
  16. Lundgaard LE, Hansen W, Ingebrigtsen S (2008) Ageing of mineral oil impregnated cellulose by acid catalysis. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 15(2):540–546.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2008.4483475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Montsinger VM (1930) Loading transformers by temperature. Trans Am Inst Electr Eng 49(2):776–790.  https://doi.org/10.1109/T-AIEE.1930.5055572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moser H, Dahinden V (1987) Transformerboard II: properties and application of transformer board of different fibres. Weidmann AG, RappersvilGoogle Scholar
  19. Razumova LG, Ryabkov AV, Rybakov LM (1987) Ageing of cellulose insulation in transformers. Elektr Stantsii 5:76–77.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10601329608011014 Google Scholar
  20. Schaut A, Autru S, Eeckhoudt S (2011) Applicability of methanol as a new marker for paper degradation in power transformers. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul.  https://doi.org/10.1109/tdei.2011.5739459 Google Scholar
  21. Sun HC, Huang YC, Huang CM (2012) A review of dissolved gas analysis in power transformers. Energy Procedia 14:1220–1225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.1079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Susa D, Brede KL, Lundgaard LE (2011) On-line assessment of power transformer ageing accelerators. In: 2011 IEEE international conference on dielectric liquids (ICDL). IEEE, pp 1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1109/icdl.2011.6015466
  23. Teymouri A, Vahidi B (2017) CO2/CO concentration ratio: a complementary method for determining the degree of polymerization of power transformer paper insulation. IEEE Electr Insul Mag 33(1):24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2017.7804313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Unsworth J, Mitchell F (1990) Degradation of electrical insulating paper monitored with high-performance liquid chromatography. IEEE Trans Electr Insul 25(4):737–746.  https://doi.org/10.1109/14.57098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yoshida H, Ishioka Y, Suzuki T, Yanari T, Teranishi T (1987) Degradation of insulating materials of transformers. IEEE Trans Electr Insul 6:795–800.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1987.298942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations