Recyclable carboxylated cellulose beads with tunable pore structure and size for highly efficient dye removal
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In this work, carboxylated cellulose beads with highly porous structure were fabricated using phase separation method, and subsequent carboxylation using citrate. The pore structure and average size of the carboxylated cellulose beads could be altered by adjusting reaction temperature and time during carboxylation, in which the average sizes were in the range of 2.08–2.34 mm. Moreover, the resulting porous cellulose beads with open-pore surface exhibited high specific surface area (~ 156.86 m2/g) and high carboxyl group content (~ 4.93 mmol/g). Considering their high specific surface area, surface carboxylation, and eco-friendly, the carboxylated cellulose beads were utilized for removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). The porous, carboxylated cellulose beads exhibited remarkable adsorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 288.81 mg/g, about 8 times higher than unmodified cellulose beads. Also, this porous bead showed a promising application as high-efficient absorbent and its adsorption capacity for MB still retained 250.78 mg/g after ten adsorption–desorption cycles.
KeywordsCellulose Open-pore bead Surface carboxylation Dye removal Recyclability
The work was financially supported by the Public Technology Research Plan of Zhejiang Province (LGF18E030003, LY15E030003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672251), and 521 Talent Project of Zhejiang Sci-Tech University.
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Conflict of interest
This is the original work of the authors, and all the authors mutually agree that it should be submitted to Cellulose. All authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.