, Volume 26, Issue 17, pp 9207–9227 | Cite as

Chemical modification of cellulose with zwitterion moieties used in the uptake of red Congo dye from aqueous media

  • Cesar M. Laureano-Anzaldo
  • Nadia B. Haro-Mares
  • Juan C. Meza-Contreras
  • Jorge R. Robledo-Ortíz
  • Ricardo Manríquez-GonzálezEmail author
Original Research


Two zwitterionic celluloses were prepared by grafting amphoteric precursors AS (APTES with 1,4 butane sultone) and TAS (Trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine with 1,4 butane sultone) onto activated cellulose with NH4OH in a heterogeneous system. Information about the zwitterionic modification in celluloses was achieved by FT-IR and 13C/29Si NMR CP/MAS spectroscopy. These analyses demonstrated the chemical structure and level of grafting of the zwitterionic precursors onto cellulose. Moreover, grafting degree (GD) of Cel-AS (31.5%) and Cel-TAS (16.6%) was evaluated by Elemental analysis. The amount of free amino groups from the grafted residues in both samples was tested by ninhydrin method. Here, results demonstrated that around a sixth part of the grafting in Cel-AS remains as aminopropylsilane. In the case of Cel-TAS, the half of butane sultone was bonded to a secondary nitrogen resulting in three possible zwitterionic configurations. These zwitterionic materials were used as adsorbents of Congo red dye in aqueous solution at different concentrations. Uptake experimental data fit well with Langmuir model, with a maximum theoretical adsorption capacity of 541.8 mg g−1 for Cel-TAS and 81.2 mg g−1 in Cel-AS at pH 6. Kinetics results for these systems showed the limiting rate step driven by chemisorption process, since they followed a pseudo-second order model. Finally, zwitterionic modification of cellulose with TAS conferred an increase on more than eightfold of Congo red adsorption capacity in comparison with unmodified cellulose.

Graphic abstract


Zwitterionic moieties Cellulose modification Dye uptake Congo red 



Authors thank to the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT) in Mexico for the graduate scholarship of Cesar M. Laureano-Anzaldo as well as for the financial support received under the Basic Science project (CB2015/253376). Also, we acknowledge to Institute of transdisciplinary research (ITRANS) from University of Guadalajara for the NMR facilities.

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2717_MOESM1_ESM.docx (238 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 237 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper, CUCEIUniversity of GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico

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