, Volume 26, Issue 16, pp 8801–8812 | Cite as

Synthesis of a novel compound based on chitosan and ammonium polyphosphate for flame retardancy applications

  • M. N. Prabhakar
  • G. M. Raghavendra
  • B. V. D. Vijaykumar
  • Kalpesh Patil
  • Jongchul Seo
  • Song Jung-ilEmail author
Original Research


In this investigation, a novel compound (NCSAPP) based on chitosan (CS) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was synthesized by employing solutions of chitosan and ammonium polyphosphate. The synthesized compound was characterized using FTIR, PXRD, XPS, FESEM, EDX, TGA and a Micro Calorimeter. Finally, NCSAPP was inserted into vinyl ester resin and study the thermal and flammable properties. The FTIR spectrum of NCSAPP suggested the reaction between chitosan and APP and that formation of –NH3+–OP– bonds with the –NH3+ peak at 1533 cm−1. The XPS spectrum showed a characteristic peak at 401.36 eV corresponding to the N1s of –NH3+. PXRD suggested the amorphous nature of NCSAPP. FESEM coupled with EDX depicted a rough morphological pattern for NCSAPP with C, N, O and P. The thermal decomposition of NCSAPP was observed to be active at lower temperatures. However, at elevated temperatures (> 315 °C), a slow degradation rate with significantly higher thermal stability than that of CS was observed. The peak release rate (16.9 w/g) and total heat release (0.9 kJ/g) were significantly lower than those of CS. Besides, vinyl ester composite of NCSAPP obtained superior fire-retardant properties than vinyl ester composites of CS and APP. The obtained results indicate that NCSAPP can be applied in thermal applications operating at high temperatures.


Chitosan Ammonium polyphosphate Thermal stability Heat release rate 



This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science Education (2018R1A6A1A03024509, 2016R1D1A1B03935747 and 2019R1A2B5B03004980).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Prabhakar
    • 1
  • G. M. Raghavendra
    • 2
  • B. V. D. Vijaykumar
    • 3
  • Kalpesh Patil
    • 4
  • Jongchul Seo
    • 2
  • Song Jung-il
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringChangwon National UniversityChangwonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of PackagingYonsei UniversityWonjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.Center for Process Research and InnovationDr. Reddy’s Institute of Life SciencesHyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryChangwon National UniversityChangwonSouth Korea

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