pp 1–15 | Cite as

Bacterial cellulose/montmorillonite bionanocomposites prepared by immersion and in-situ methods: structural, mechanical, thermal, swelling and dehydration properties

  • Niloofar Khodamoradi
  • Valiollah BabaeipourEmail author
  • Mohammad SirousazarEmail author
Original Research


In this research work, bacterial cellulose/montmorillonite bionanocomposites were prepared and their properties studied thoroughly. The bionanocomposites were prepared through two different methods, including the in situ and immersion methods. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized by employing the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetery techniques. The mechanical properties of the samples were also studied. It was shown that the prepared bionanocomposites have enhanced storage modulus compared with the pure bacterial cellulose. Furthermore, it was observed that by incorporating the montmorillonite nanoparticles, the thermal properties of the bionanocomposites, such as thermal stability are improved. Moisture absorption (swelling) and water release (dehydration) properties, as important properties of the bionanocomposites in the biomedical applications, have been investigated. The swelling behavior of the prepared bionanocomposites showed that the samples containing higher amount of montmorillonite had higher swelling values. It was also found that by increasing the amount of montmorillonite in the bionanocomposites, longer duration is needed for dehydration of samples and the dominant mechanism of the mass transfer is the non-Fickian diffusion.


Bacterial cellulose Montmorillonite Bionanocomposite Swelling Dehydration 



  1. Cai J, Lei M, Zhang Q, He JR, Chen T, Liu S, Fei P (2017) Electrospun composite nanofiber mats of Cellulose@Organically modified montmorillonite for heavy metal ion removal: design, characterization, evaluation of absorption performance. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 92:10–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Demircan D, Ilk S, Zhang B (2017) Cellulose–organic montmorillonite nanocomposites as biomacromolecular quorum-sensing inhibitor. Biomacromolecules 18:3439–3446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Erbas Kiziltas E, Kiziltas A, Blumentritt M, Gardner DJ (2015) Biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in the presence of different nanoparticles to create novel hybrid materials. Carbohydr Polym 129:148–155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. French ADJC (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fu L, Zhang J, Yang G (2013) Present status and applications of bacterial cellulose-based materials for skin tissue repair. Carbohydr Polym 92:1432–1442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gallegos AMA, Carrera SH, Parra R, Keshavarz T, Iqbal HM (2016) Bacterial cellulose: a sustainable source to develop value-added products—a review. BioResources 11:5641–5655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Li Y-T, Lin S-B, Chen L-C, Chen H-H (2017) Antimicrobial activity and controlled release of nanosilvers in bacterial cellulose composites films incorporated with montmorillonites. Cellulose 24:4871–4883. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liu A, Berglund LA (2012) Clay nanopaper composites of nacre-like structure based on montmorrilonite and cellulose nanofibers—improvements due to chitosan addition. Carbohydr Polym 87:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Luo H, Xiong G, Yang Z, Raman SR, Si H, Wan Y (2014) A novel three-dimensional graphene/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite prepared by in situ biosynthesis. RSC Adv 4:14369–14372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maneerung T, Tokura S, Rujiravanit R (2008) Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial wound dressing. Carbohydr Polym 72:43–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Millon LE, Guhados G, Wan W (2008) Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol-Bacterial cellulose nanocomposite for biomedical applications. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 86:444–452. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moniri M et al (2017) Production and status of bacterial cellulose in biomedical engineering. Nanomaterials 7:257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Okahisa Y, Yoshida A, Miyaguchi S, Yano H (2009) Optically transparent wood–cellulose nanocomposite as a base substrate for flexible organic light-emitting diode displays. Compos Sci Technol 69:1958–1961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ruka DR, Simon GP, Dean KM (2013) In situ modifications to bacterial cellulose with the water insoluble polymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. Carbohydr Polym 92:1717–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Segal L, Creely J, Martin A Jr, Conrad CM (1959) An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Text Res J 29:786–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shao W et al (2015) Development of silver sulfadiazine loaded bacterial cellulose/sodium alginate composite films with enhanced antibacterial property. Carbohydr Polym 132:351–358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shao W, Wang S, Liu H, Wu J, Zhang R, Min H, Huang M (2016) Preparation of bacterial cellulose/graphene nanosheets composite films with enhanced mechanical performances. Carbohydr Polym 138:166–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sureshkumar M, Siswanto DY, Lee C-K (2010) Magnetic antimicrobial nanocomposite based on bacterial cellulose and silver nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 20:6948. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ul-Islam M, Khan T, Park JK (2012a) Nanoreinforced bacterial cellulose–montmorillonite composites for biomedical applications. Carbohydr Polym 89:1189–1197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ul-Islam M, Khan T, Park JK (2012b) Water holding and release properties of bacterial cellulose obtained by in situ and ex situ modification. Carbohydr Polym 88:596–603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ul-Islam M, Khan T, Khattak WA, Park JK (2013a) Bacterial cellulose–MMTs nanoreinforced composite films: novel wound dressing material with antibacterial properties. Cellulose 20:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ul-Islam M, Khattak WA, Ullah MW, Khan S, Park JK (2013b) Synthesis of regenerated bacterial cellulose–zinc oxide nanocomposite films for biomedical applications. Cellulose 21:433–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ummartyotin S, Juntaro J, Sain M, Manuspiya H (2012) Development of transparent bacterial cellulose nanocomposite film as substrate for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) display. Ind Crops Prod 35:92–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang H, Zhu E, Yang J, Zhou P, Sun D, Tang W (2012) Bacterial cellulose nanofiber-supported polyaniline nanocomposites with flake-shaped morphology as supercapacitor electrodes. J Phys Chem C 116:13013–13019. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang X, Ullah N, Sun X, Guo Y, Chen L, Li Z, Feng X (2017) Development and characterization of bacterial cellulose reinforced biocomposite films based on protein from buckwheat distiller’s dried grains. Int J Biol Macromol 96:353–360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang C, Chen C (2005) Synthesis, characterisation and properties of polyanilines containing transition metal ions. Synth Met 153:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang T, Wang W, Zhang D, Zhang X, Ma Y, Zhou Y, Qi L (2010) Biotemplated synthesis of gold nanoparticle-bacteria cellulose nanofiber nanocomposites and their application in biosensing. Adv Func Mater 20:1152–1160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhu H et al (2011) Biosynthesis of spherical Fe3O4/bacterial cellulose nanocomposites as adsorbents for heavy metal ions. Carbohydr Polym 86:1558–1564. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zimmermann KA, LeBlanc JM, Sheets KT, Fox RW, Gatenholm P (2011) Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications. Mater Sci Eng C 31:43–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringMalek-Ashtar University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical EngineeringUrmia University of TechnologyUrmiaIran

Personalised recommendations