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The formation of Gluconacetobacter xylinum cellulose under the influence of the dye brilliant yellow

  • Yuanyuan Weng
  • Brittney Nagle
  • Karl Mueller
  • Jeffrey CatchmarkEmail author
Original Research


The structural characteristics of the nascent fibril produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinum (G. xylinum) have been studied under the influence of the cellulose binding dye brilliant yellow (BY) by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. BY is found to be more effective at reducing crystallinity than fluorescent brightener 28 (FB28), pontamine fast scarlet 4 (S4B) and other dyes previously studied. Under static cultivation conditions, increasing concentrations of brilliant yellow in the growth media from 20, 50, 100 to 250 μM, result in decreasing cellulose crystallinity from 73 to 18%, respectively, as compared to 82% exhibited by the control. FTIR data indicate that the presence of BY is most effective at suppressing intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. After boiling in 70 vol% aqueous EtOH solution for 12 h, the extracted dye-altered cellulose becomes more ordered, which may be due to the extraction of BY from the BY-cellulose complex. FTIR data indicate that compared to control cellulose, the reclaimed brilliant yellow-altered cellulose contains more cellulose Iβ, where the FB28 and S4B altered cellulose remains principally Iα. Based on WAXD and NMR data we propose a dye-cellulose complex structure associated with BY. This model supports the hypothesis that microfibrils assemble through the hydrogen bonding of formed mini-sheets that consist of stacked glucan chains linked by van der Waals forces.


Cellulose synthesis and structure Gluconacetobacter xylinus Brilliant yellow NMR X-ray diffraction 



This material is based upon work supported by the Center for LignoCellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001090 and USDA-NIFA, PAES 4602, Accession Number 1009850. The S4B agent was generously provided by Dr. Anderson’s lab at Penn State University.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 26 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Biological EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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