, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 5851–5864 | Cite as

Stable microfluidized bacterial cellulose suspension

  • Fabia K. Andrade
  • João Paulo S. Morais
  • Celli R. Muniz
  • José Heriberto O. Nascimento
  • Rodrigo S. Vieira
  • Francisco Miguel P. Gama
  • Morsyleide F. RosaEmail author
Original Research


In this work, nanofibrillated suspensions of bacterial cellulose (BC) were produced via microfluidization. The effects of the size of the openings of the microfluidizer chamber and ultrasonication on the nanofibril properties were evaluated. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis indicated a considerable reduction in BC crystallinity (86–65%) and crystallite size (5.8–4.0 nm) after microfluidization and ultrasonication. Thermal analysis showed a remarkable reduction from 337 to 283 °C in the initial temperature of degradation along the several steps of BC deconstruction. Moreover, infrared analysis indicated that both processes led to an increase in the Iβ content (43–66%) of the fibers. Morphological analysis showed that the fibrillation process used exposed the internal faces of the ribbon-like nanofibrils, and thus, increased the surface area of the cellulose network, and produced fibers with a high aspect ratio (L/d). A thermally stable nanofibrillated suspension could be obtained by adding carboxymethyl cellulose as a simple and effective way to maintain cellulose fibers dispersed in the solution during sterilization by autoclaving.

Graphical abstract


Bacterial cellulose Nanofibrillated cellulose Microfluidization Sterilization 



The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, Brazil), the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq, Brazil), the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal), and also the Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry. This research study was also supported by the international collaboration Program FCT/CAPES (No. 99999.008530/2014-09).

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2512_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 6036 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical – CNPATFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Engenharia QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)FortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Embrapa AlgodãoCampina GrandeBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de EngenhariaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  5. 5.IBB, Institute for Biotechnology and BioengineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

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