, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 4225–4240 | Cite as

Highly efficient flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric prepared by a novel reactive flame retardant

  • Fang Xu
  • Ling Zhong
  • Yuan Xu
  • Cheng Zhang
  • Fengxiu Zhang
  • Guangxian ZhangEmail author
Original Research


The flame resistance of cotton fabric was greatly enhanced by a novel reactive flame retardant with serrated structure, ammonium salt of 1,3-diaminopropane tetra-(methylenephosphonic acid) (ADDTMPA), and the softness of cotton fabric was retained very well. The results showed that cotton fabric modified by 30% ADDTMPA had a LOI value of 41.5%, which remained well after 40 laundering cycles with a LOI value of 26.3%. The treated cotton fabric was not ignited in vertical flammability tests, and the results of cone calorimetry proved that the heat release rates and total heat release of treated cotton fabric decreased substantially. TG analysis showed that the treated cotton fabric had the lower initial decomposition temperature and more residues than control cotton fabric during combustion. TG-IR analysis showed that the treated cotton fabric released much less flammable volatile species than control cotton fabric. FTIR analysis indicated that the flame retardant was reactive in condensed phase and the flame retardant was grafted on cellulose by P–O–C bonds. EDX results showed that a large amount of phosphorus was introduced into the cotton fabric. SEM showed that the modification had little effect on the surface of cotton fibers, and a large amount of residue was maintained after combustion. The treatment by ADDTMPA could produce highly effective flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric.

Graphical abstract

A novel phosphorus-based, halogen-free and formaldehyde-free flame retardant with serrated structure and reactive groups was synthesized to prepare highly efficient flame-retardant and soft cotton fabric by chemical grafting.


Cotton fabric Soft Flame retardant Reactive groups Serrated structure 



This work was supported by the “Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities” (Grant No. XDJK2018D009).


  1. Abou-Okeil A, Ei-Sawy SM, Abdel-Mohdy FA (2013) Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer. Carbohydr Polym 92:2293–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alongi J, Carletto RA, Bosco F et al (2014) Caseins and hydrophobins as novel green flame retardants for cotton fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 99:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basak S, Ali SW (2016) Sustainable fire retardancy of textiles using bio-macromolecules. Polym Degrad Stab 133:47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang SC, Condon B, Graves E et al (2011) Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric. Fibers Polym 12:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheema HA, El-Shafei A, Hauser PJ (2013) Conferring flame retardancy on cotton using novel halogen-free flame retardant bifunctional monomers: synthesis, characterizations and applications. Carbohydr Polym 92:885–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davies PJ, Horrocks AR, Alderson A (2005) The sensitization of thermal decomposition of ammonium polyphosphate by selected metal ions and their potential for improved cotton fabric flame retardancy. Polym Degrad Stab 88:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong C, Lu Z, Zhang F et al (2016) Combustion behaviors of cotton fabrics treated by a novel nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing polysiloxane flame retardant. J Therm Anal Calorim 123(1):535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edwards B, Hauser P, EI-Shafei A (2015) Nonflammable cellulosic substrates by application of novel radiation-curable flame retardant monomers derived from cyclotriphosphazene. Cellulose 22:275–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Shafei A, Elshemy M, Abou-Okeil A (2015) Eco-friendly finishing agent for cotton fabrics to improve flame retardant and antibacterial properties. Carbohydr Polym 118:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng YJ, Zhou Y, Li DK et al (2017) A plant-based reactive ammonium phytate for use as a flame-retardant for cotton fabric. Carbohydr Polym 175:636–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gaan S, Mauclaire L, Rupper P et al (2011) Thermal degradation of cellulose acetate in presence of bis-phosphoramidates. J Anal Appl Pyrol 90:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao WW, Zhang GX, Zhang FX (2015) Enhancement of flame retardancy of cotton fabrics by grafting a novel organic phosphorous-based flame retardant. Cellulose 22:2787–2796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He PS, Chen XY, Zhu P et al (2018) Preparation and flame retardancy of reactive flame retardant for cotton fabric. J Therm Anal Calorim 132:1771–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horrocks AR (2008) An introduction to the burning behavior of cellulosic fibres. J Soc Dyers Colour 99:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horrocks AR (2011) Flame retardant challenges for textiles and fibres: new chemistry versus innovatory solution. Polym Degrad Stab 96:377–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Inderjeet K, Sanjeev KV (2010) Living radical polymerization and grafting of diethyl (acryloyloxy) ethylthiophosphoramidate onto cotton fabric to impart flame retardnacy. Surf Coat Thechnol 205:2082–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang DW, Sun CY, Zhou YN et al (2015) Enhanced flame retardancy of cotton fabrics with a novel intumescent flame-retardant finishing system. Fiber Polym 16(2):388–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lessan F, Montazer M, Moghadam MB (2011) A novel durable flame-retardant cotton fabric using sodium hypophosphite, nano TiO2 and maleic acid. Thermochim Acta 520:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li XH, Chen HY, Wang WT et al (2015) Synthesis of a formaldehyde-free phosphoruse nitrogen flame retardant with multiple reactive groups and its application in cotton fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 120:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu W, Chen L, Wang YZ (2012) A novel phosphorus-containing flame retardant for the formaldehyde-free treatment of cotton fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 97:2487–2491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu ZY, Xu MJ, Wang Q et al (2017) Anovel durable flame retardant cotton fabric produced by surface chemical grafting of phosphorus- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Cellulose 24:4069–4081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Malucelli G, Bosco F, Alongi J et al (2014) Biomacromolecules as novel green flame retardant systems for textiles: an overview. RSC Adv 4:46024–46039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nazare S, Kandola BK, Horrocks AR (2008) Smoke, CO, and CO2 measurements and evaluation using different fire testing techniques for flame retardant unsaturated. J Fire Sci 26:215–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nguyen TMD, Chang S, Condon B et al (2012a) Development of an environmentally friendly halogen-free phosphorus-nitrogen bond flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Polym Adv Technol 23:1555–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen TMD, Chang S, Condon B et al (2012b) Synthesis and characterization of a novel phosphorus-nitrogen-containing flame retardant and its application for textile. Polym Adv Technol 23:1036–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nguyen TMD, Chang S, Condon B et al (2012c) Synthesis of a novel flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen and its comparison for cotton fabric. Fibers Polym 13:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosace G, Castellano A, Trovato V et al (2018) Thermal and flame retardant behavior of cotton fabrics treated with a novel nitrogen-containing carboxyl-functionalized organophosphorus system. Carbohydr Polym 196:348–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salmeia KA, Gaan S, Malucelli G (2016) Recent advances for flame retardancy of textiles based on phosphorus chemistry. Polymers 8:319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shariatinia Z, Javeri N, Shekarriz S (2015) Flame retardant cotton fibers produced using novel synthesized halogen-free phosphoramide nanoparticles. Carbohydr Polym 118:183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sirvio J, Hyvakko U, Liimatainen H et al (2011) Periodate oxidation of cellulose at elevated temperatures using metal salts as cellulose activators. Carbohydr Polym 83(3):1293–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang XY, Lu CQ, Chen CX (2014) Effect of chicken-feather protein-based flame retardant on flame retarding performance of cotton fabric. J Appl Polym Sci 40584:1–8Google Scholar
  32. Weil ED, Levchik SV (2008) Flame retardants in commercial use or development for textiles. J Fire Sci 26:243–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xie KL, Gao AQ, Zhang YS (2013) Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen. Carbohydr Polym 98:706–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu F, Yang YL, Zhang GX et al (2015) A self-stiffness finishing for cotton fabric with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide. Cellulose 22:2837–2844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu LJ, Wang W, Yu D (2017a) Durable flame retardant finishing of cotton fabrics with halogen-free organophosphonate by UV photoinitiated thiol-ene click chemistry. Carbohydr Polym 172:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu L, Wang W, Yu D (2017b) Preparation of a reactive flame retardant and its finishing on cotton fabrics based on click chemistry. RSC Adv 7:2044–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang ZY, Wang XW, Lei DP (2012) A durable flame retardant for cellulosic fabrics. Polym Degrad Stab 97:2467–2472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yuan HX, Xing WY, Zhang P et al (2012) Functionalization of cotton with UV-cured flame retardant coatings. Ind Eng Chem Res 51:5394–5401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang ZY, Zhao GZ, Liu YQ (2014) Preparation and thermal behavior of novel sulfur-nitrogen flame retardant containing triazine ring for cotton fabrics. Asian J Chem 26:4419–4422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang DQ, Williams BL, Shrestha SB et al (2017) Flame retardant and hydrophobic coatings on cotton fabrics via so–gel and self-assembly techniques. J Colloid Interface Sci 505:892–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhao P, Li X, Zhang M et al (2013) Highly flame-retarding cotton fabrics with a novel phosphorus/nitrogen intumescent flame retardant. Korean J Chem Eng 30:1687–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao B, Liu YT, Zhang CY et al (2017) A novel phosphoramidate and its application on cotton fabrics: synthesis, flammability and thermal degradation. J Anal Appl Pyrol 125:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zheng DD, Zhou JF, Zhong L et al (2016) A novel durable and high-phosphorous-containing flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Cellulose 23:2211–2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ling Zhong
    • 3
  • Yuan Xu
    • 4
  • Cheng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fengxiu Zhang
    • 5
  • Guangxian Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Textile and GarmentSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern TextileChongqingChina
  3. 3.Chongqing Fibre Inspection BureauChongqingChina
  4. 4.College of Paper-Making and Botanical Resources EngineeringQilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences)JinanChina
  5. 5.Institute of Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations