, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 3575–3588 | Cite as

An eco-friendly way to whiten yellowish anti-wrinkle cotton fabrics using TBCC-activated peroxide low-temperature post-bleaching

  • Xiongfang Luo
  • Dongyan Shao
  • Changhai Xu
  • Qiang Wang
  • Weidong GaoEmail author
Original Research


Anti-wrinkle finished fabrics have the problem of yellowing, especially the citric acid-treated fabrics. Post-bleaching using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could endow better whiteness to yellowish fabrics, however during the process some anti-wrinkle properties are lost. The crosslinking bonds of anti-wrinkle fabrics would be broken under high temperature and strongly alkaline conditions of H2O2 post-bleaching. In this work, an N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]caprolactam chloride (TBCC)-activated peroxide post-bleaching method is developed, which has milder conditions and can better bleach the yellowish anti-wrinkle fabrics. The proposed method hardly breaks any crosslinking bond. Moreover, a one-time post-bleaching method for whitening anti-wrinkle fabrics is proposed, which means that fabrics would not be bleached before finishing, rather are bleached only once after the finishing. In this regard, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy are employed to provide key evidence for changes before and after the post-bleaching process. Whiteness, wrinkle recovery angles, tensile strength retention, wettability and level of durable press of cotton fabrics before and after the post-bleaching treatment are evaluated. The results reveal that one-time TBCC-activated peroxide post-bleaching can effectively whiten the yellowish fabric and maintain a good anti-wrinkle property. This study would be helpful in establishing an eco-friendly way to produce high-quality anti-wrinkle cotton fabrics.

Graphical abstract


Bleaching Anti-wrinkle Activator Crosslinking Yellowing 



This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFB0309200), and the Postgraduate Research and Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYCX17_1440).

Supplementary material

10570_2019_2316_MOESM1_ESM.docx (620 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 620 kb)


  1. Andrews BAK, Simoneaux JM, Harper RJH Jr (1983) Formaldehyde release and cellulose crosslinking with N-methylol agents: a delicate balance. Macromol Mater Eng 115:115–129Google Scholar
  2. Cai JY, Evans DJ, Smith SM (2001) Bleaching of with TAED and NOBS activated peroxide systems. AATCC Rev 1(31):34Google Scholar
  3. Choi HM (1992) Nonformaldehyde polymerization-crosslinking treatment of cotton fabrics for improved strength retention. Text Res J 62:614–618. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Choi HM, Yong MK (2001) Performance improvement of nonformaldehyde wrinkle resistant finished cotton fabrics treated with dialdehydes. Fiber Polym 2:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frick JG, Harper RJ (1982) Investigations toward formaldehyde-free finishes’. Text Res J 52:141–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hebeish A, Hashem M, Shaker N, Ramadan M, El-Sadek B, Hady MA (2009) New development for combined bioscouring and bleaching of cotton-based fabrics. Carbohydr Polym 78:961–972. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hofmann J, Just G, Pritzkow W, Schmidt H (1992) Bleaching activators and the mechanism of bleaching activation. J Prakt Chem/Chem-Ztg 334:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kang IS, Yang CQ, Wei W, Lickfield GC (1998) Mechanical strength of durable press finished cotton fabrics: part I: effects of acid degradation and crosslinking of cellulose by polycarboxylic acids. Text Res J 68:865–870. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Korntner P, Hosoya T, Dietz T, Eibinger K, Reiter H, Spitzbart M, Röder T, Borgards A, Kreiner W, Mahler AK, Winter H, Groiss Y, French AD, Henniges U, Potthast A, Rosenau T (2015) Chromophores in lignin-free cellulosic materials belong to three compound classes. Chromophores in cellulosics, XII. Cellulose 22:1053–1062. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lam YL, Kan CW, Yuen CWM (2011a) Wrinkle-resistant finishing of cotton fabric with BTCA—the effect of co-catalyst. Text Res J 80:482–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lam YL, Kan CW, Yuen CWM, Au CH (2011b) Fabric objective measurement of the plasma-treated cotton fabric subjected to wrinkle-resistant finishing with BTCA and TiO2 system. Fiber Polym 12:626–634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee JJ, Hinks D, Lim S-H, Hauser P (2010) Hydrolytic stability of a series of lactam-based cationic bleach activators and their impact on cellulose peroxide bleaching. Cellulose 17:671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lin YC, Cho J, Tompsett GA, Westmoreland PR, Huber GW (2009) Kinetics and mechanism of cellulose pyrolysis. J Phys Chem C 113:20097–20107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu J, Wang B, Xu X, Chen J, Chen L, Yang Y (2016) Green finishing of cotton fabrics using a xylitol-extended citric acid cross-linking system on a pilot scale. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4:1131–1138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu K, Zhang X, Yan K (2017) Low-temperature bleaching of cotton knitting fabric with H2O2/PAG system. Cellulose 24:1555–1561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu K, Zhang X, Yan K (2018a) Bleaching of cotton fabric with tetraacetylhydrazine as bleach activator for H2O2. Carbohydr Polym 188:221–227. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu K, Zhang X, Yan K (2018b) Development of o-phthalic anhydride as a low-temperature activator in H2O2 bleaching system for cotton fabric. Cellulose 25:859–867. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Long X, Xu C, Du J, Fu S (2013) The TAED/H2O2/NaHCO3 system as an approach to low-temperature and near-neutral pH bleaching of cotton. Carbohydr Polym 95:107–113. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lu M (2010) Crease resistant finishing of cotton fabric with a complex of fibroin and citric acid. Fibres Text East Eur 18:86–88Google Scholar
  20. Lu Y, Yang CQ (1999) Fabric yellowing caused by citric acid as a crosslinking agent for cotton. Text Res J 69:685–690. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luo X, Sui X, Yao J, Fei X, Du J, Sun C, Xiang Z, Xu C, Wang S (2015) Performance modelling of the TBCC-activated peroxide system for low-temperature bleaching of cotton using response surface methodology. Cellulose 22:3491–3499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rosenau T, Potthast A, Krainz K, Yoneda Y, Dietz T, Shields ZPI, French AD (2011) Chromophores in cellulosics, VI. First isolation and identification of residual chromophores from aged cotton linters. Cellulose 18:1623–1633. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosenau T, Potthast A, Krainz K, Hettegger H, Henniges U, Yoneda Y, Rohrer C, French AD (2014) Chromophores in cellulosics, XI: isolation and identification of residual chromophores from bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 21:2271–2283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenau T, Potthast A, Kosma P, Hosoya T, Henniges U, Mereiter K, French AD (2017) 2,4′: 2′,4 Dianhydride of 3-keto-glucoside, a precursor to chromophores of aged, yellow cellulose, and its weak interactions. Cellulose 24:1227–1234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sahin UK, Gursoy NC, Hauser P, Smith B (2009) Optimization of ionic crosslinking process: an alternative to conventional durable press finishing. Text Res J 79:744–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schindler WD, Hauser PJ (2004) 5-easy-care and durable press finishes of cellulosics. Chem Finish Text 5:51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schramm C, Rinderer B (1999) Influence of additives on the formation of unsaturated PCAs produced during durable-press curing with citric acid. Color Technol 115:306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tang P, Sun G (2017) Generation of hydroxyl radicals and effective whitening of cotton fabrics by H2O2 under UVB irradiation. Carbohydr Polym 160:153–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Tang P, Ji B, Sun G (2016) Whiteness improvement of citric acid crosslinked cotton fabrics: H2O2 bleaching under alkaline condition. Carbohydr Polym 147:139–145. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vail SL, Arney WC (1971) Reaction mechanisms of glyoxal-based durable-press resins with cotton. Text Res J 41:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang M, Long X, Du J, Sun C, Fu S, Xu C (2014a) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of cotton treated with the TBCC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system. Text Res J 84:2149–2156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang S, Li S, Zhu Q, Yang CQ (2014b) A novel low temperature approach for simultaneous scouring and bleaching of knitted cotton fabric at 60 °C. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:9985–9991. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Y, Cao G, Xia L, Sheng D, Jiang S, Pan H, Wang Y, Chen J, Chen Y, Xu W (2017) Effect of anti-creasing component on properties of two-ply cotton yarn. Cellulose 24:3073–3082. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wei D, Sun C, Wang M, Du J, Xu C (2014) Synthesis of N-[4-(dimethylalkylammoniomethyl) benzoyl]caprolactam chlorides as cationic bleach activators for low-temperature bleaching of cotton fabric under near-neutral pH conditions. Color Technol 130:432–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu C, Shamey R (2012) Nonlinear modeling of equilibrium sorption of selected anionic adsorbates from aqueous solutions on cellulosic substrates: part 2: experimental validation. Cellulose 19:627–633. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu C, Shamey R, Hinks D (2010) Activated peroxide bleaching of regenerated bamboo fiber using a butyrolactam-based cationic bleach activator. Cellulose 17:339–347. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu C, Long X, Du J, Fu S (2013) A critical reinvestigation of the TAED-activated peroxide system for low-temperature bleaching of cotton. Carbohydr Polym 92:249–253. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu C, Hinks D, Sun C, Wei Q (2015) Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride. Carbohydr Polym 119:71–77. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yang CQ (1991) Characterizing ester crosslinkages in cotton cellulose with FI-IR photoacoustic-spectroscopy. Text Res J 61:298–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yang CQ, Andrews BAK (1991) Infrared spectroscopic studies of the nonformaldehyde durable press finishing of cotton fabrics by use of polycarboxylic acids. J Appl Polym Sci 43:1609–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yang CQ, Qian L, Lickfield GC (2001) Mechanical strength of durable press finished cotton fabric. IV. Abrasion resistance. Text Res J 70:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yao W, Wang B, Ye T, Yang Y (2013) Durable press finishing of cotton fabrics with citric acid: enhancement of whiteness and wrinkle recovery by polyol extenders. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:16118–16127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ye T, Wang B, Liu J, Chen J, Yang Y (2015) Quantitative analysis of citric acid/sodium hypophosphite modified cotton by HPLC and conductometric titration. Carbohydr Polym 121:92–98. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Zeronian SH, Inglesby MK (1995) Bleaching of cellulose by hydrogen peroxide. Cellulose 2:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhao X, Wang M (2013) Deposition of pi-conjugated polycyanate ester thin films and their dielectric properties. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 33:237–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhou W, Yang CQ, Lickfield GC (2004) Mechanical strength of durable press finished cotton fabric part V: poly(vinyl alcohol) as an additive to improve fabric abrasion resistance. J Appl Polym Sci 91:3940–3946CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiongfang Luo
    • 1
  • Dongyan Shao
    • 1
  • Changhai Xu
    • 1
  • Qiang Wang
    • 1
  • Weidong Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Textiles and ClothingJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations