, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 3557–3574 | Cite as

Flame resistance behavior of cotton fabrics coated with bilayer assemblies of ammonium polyphosphate and casein

  • Sajid Faheem
  • Vijay BahetiEmail author
  • Maros Tunak
  • Jakub Wiener
  • Jiri Militky
Original Research


This research report discusses the intumescent flame resistance and physiological comfort of cotton fabrics after being coated with bilayer assemblies of different concentrations of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and casein solutions. The flame resistance was investigated using horizontal flame propagation, cone calorimetry and thermo-gravimetric analysis, whereas physiological comfort was estimated in terms of air permeability, water vapor permeability and stiffness testing. From cone calorimetry results, the coated fabrics showed very slow combustion kinetics as the concentration of casein or APP was increased. Although, higher concentration of casein was found to produce higher char residue, but the physiological comfort properties were deteriorated beyond 5 wt% casein. The images of burnt samples confirmed the formation of a distinct intumescence layer of char residue and it was also validated from the measurements of thermal conductivity of char residues. In this way, the presented work showed that the casein could perform number of functions such as catalyzed dehydration, accelerated charring and intumescent char formation in APP based intumescent systems.

Graphical abstract


Green flame retardants Casein Cotton Thermo-oxidative stability Physiological comfort Image analysis 



This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the European Union - European Structural and Investment Funds in the frames of Operational Programme Research, Development and Education - project Hybrid Materials for Hierarchical Structures (HyHi, Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000843) and project Modular platform for autonomous chassis of specialized electric vehicles for freight and equipment transportation (Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_025/0007293). The authors acknowledge the research project of Student grant competition of Technical University of Liberec No. 21241 granted by Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of Czech Republic.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajid Faheem
    • 1
  • Vijay Baheti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maros Tunak
    • 2
  • Jakub Wiener
    • 1
  • Jiri Militky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Textile EngineeringTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Textile Evaluation, Faculty of Textile EngineeringTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic

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