Facile preparation of reactive hydrophobic cellulose nanofibril film for reducing water vapor permeability (WVP) in packaging applications
- 300 Downloads
Due to energy crisis and environmental pollution, biopolymer-based packaging materials have been extensively investigated. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), due to their good oxygen barrier performance and excellent mechanical as well as film-forming properties, have emerged as interesting packaging materials. However, the problem of the resulting films is the highly hygroscopic character of the cellulose fibers themselves, which would further lead to a decrease of the films’ mechanical and barrier properties. Herein, a facile preparation of hydrophobic CNF films was carried out by the attachment of 10-undecylenoyl chloride onto CNFs followed by vacuum filtration. The modified CNFs became thicker and rougher compared with the pristine CNFs and were easy to disperse in ethanol. The resulting CNF film showed a higher surface roughness and a tensile strength of (47 ± 4) MPa. Additionally, the modified CNF film was hydrophobic, leading to an obvious barrier improvement with the WVP value decreasing by 62.4% in comparison to the pristine CNF film. Since this hydrophobic CNF film is easy to prepare with a good vapor barrier property, it should be promising for packaging applications. Furthermore, the generated CNF film demonstrated good reactivity with thiol groups, which can be applied for further functionalization to enrich their application fields.
KeywordsCellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) Acylation Hydrophobicity Dispersion properties Water vapor permeability (WVP)
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2018GXNSFBA138027), Scientific Research Foundation of Guangxi University (XGZ170232), the State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering (201806), the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science and Technology of Ministry of Education/Shandong Province of China (KF201716) and the Middle-young Age Ability Enhancement Program of Guangxi (2018KY0023).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Guo J, Fang W, Welle A, Feng W, Filpponen I, Rojas OJ, Levkin PA (2016) Superhydrophobic and slippery lubricant-infused flexible transparent nanocellulose films by photoinduced thiol-ene functionalization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:34115–34122. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b11741 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rajinipriya M, Nagalakshmaiah M, Robert M, Elkoun S (2018) Importance of agricultural and industrial waste in the field of nanocellulose and recent industrial developments of wood based nanocellulose: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:2807–2828. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03437 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rojo E, Peresin MS, Sampson WW, Hoeger IC, Vartiainen J, Laine J, Rojas OJ (2015) Comprehensive elucidation of the effect of residual lignin on the physical, barrier, mechanical and surface properties of nanocellulose films. Green Chem 17:1853–1866. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4GC02398F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spence KL, Venditti RA, Rojas OJ, Habibi Y, Pawlak JJ (2010) The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: water interactions and physical properties for packaging applications. Cellulose 17:835–848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9424-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tomé LC, Pinto RJB, Trovatti E, Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD, Neto CP, Gandini A (2011) Transparent bionanocomposties with improved properties prepared from acetylated bacterial cellulose and poly(lactic acid) through a simple approach. Green Chem 13:419–427. https://doi.org/10.1039/C0GC00545B CrossRefGoogle Scholar