, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 2729–2741 | Cite as

Formation of H2Ti2O5·H2O nanotube-based hybrid coating on bamboo fibre materials through layer-by-layer self-assembly method for an improved flame retardant performance

  • Chenmin Zheng
  • Sili Wen
  • Ziling Teng
  • Chunlu Ye
  • Qiaoling Chen
  • Yuanhong Zhuang
  • Guoguang Zhang
  • Jie CaiEmail author
  • Peng FeiEmail author
Original Research


In this study, H2Ti2O5·H2O nanotubes (TNTs) prepared through hydrothermal synthesis and TiO2 used as a raw material were deposited on the surface of bamboo fibre materials through a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique to reduce flammability. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the TNTs were successfully loaded onto the bamboo surface, and their content was dependent on the number of assembled bilayers. Cone calorimetry results showed that the flame retardant performance of the coated bamboo fibre materials improved significantly. As the number of the assembled bilayers increased, performance was further enhanced. When the number of TNTs bilayers was 9, the time to ignition of the bamboo fibre materials was extended from 29.5 s for raw bamboo fibre (RBF) materials to 36.8 s for LBL9. The average heat release rate, total heat release and peak specific extinction area of the fibre materials decreased from 55.67 MJ/m2 (RBF) to 35.28 MJ/m2 (LBL9), and their fire performance index increased from 0.123 m2 s/kW (RBF) to 0.161 m2 s/kW (LBL9). Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry results demonstrated that the thermal oxidation and decomposition temperatures of bamboo fibre materials increased from 241.4 °C and 217 °C (RBF) to 311.3 °C and 274 °C (LBL9), respectively.

Graphical abstract


H2Ti2O5·H2O nanotubes Layer-by-layer self-assembly method Bamboo fibre materials Flame retardant 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance supported by the Foundation for Middle-Young Age Teachers in Fujian Provincial Education Office (JAT170355); Foundation for Distinguished Young Talents in Minnan Normal University (MJ1602) and Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (No. 2015J01144, No. 2017J01642), Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (No. 2017CFB198), the Research and Innovation Initiatives of WHPU (No. 2018J01). Jie Cai also thanks the Young Talents Supporting Program of China Association of Science and Technology and the Chutian Scholar Program of Hubei Provincial Government, China.


  1. Askarinejad S, Kotowski P, Youssefian S, Rahbar N (2016) Fracture and mixed-mode resistance curve behavior of bamboo. Mech Res Commun 78:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Camenzind Adrian, Schweizer Thomas, Sztucki Michael, Pratsinis Sotiris E (2010) Structure and strength of silica-pdms nanocomposites. Polymer 51(8):1796–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng Q, Jiang M, Qin Z, Zhang S, Wang M, Li J (2017) Thermogravimetry study of the pyrolytic characteristics and kinetics of fast-growing eucalyptus residue. Energy Fuel 31(12):13675–13681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cui K, Wang H, Liao S (2016) Transcriptome sequencing and analysis for culm elongation of the world s largest bamboo (dendrocalamus sinicus). PLoS ONE 11(6):e0157362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dang MN, Grillet AC, Diep TMH, Bui QB, Woloszyn M (2018) Influence of thermo-pressing conditions on insulation materials from bamboo fibers and proteins based bone glue. Ind Crop Prod 111:834–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawy M, Nada A-AMA (2003) Ir and dielectric analysis of cellulose and its derivatives. Polym-Plast Technol 42(4):643–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fei P, Xiong H, Zia-ud-Din, Cai J (2016) Synthesis of H2Ti2O3·H2O nanotubes and their effects on the flame retardancy of bamboo fiber/high-density polyethylene composites. Compos Part A-Appl S 90:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fu B, Li X, Yuan G, Chen W, Pan Y (2014) Preparation and flame retardant and smoke suppression properties of bamboo-wood hybrid scrimber filled with calcium and magnesium nanoparticles. J Nanomater 2014(1):3Google Scholar
  9. Gee RH, Maxwell RS, Dinh LN, Balazs B (2004) Molecular dynamics studies on the effects of water speciation on interfacial structure and dynamics in silica-filled pdms composites. Polymer 45(11):3885–3891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hazrati-Behnagh M, Zarea-Hosseinabadi H, Daliri-Sosefi M, Abginehchi Z, Hemmati A (2016) Mechanical and insulating performances of ultralight thick particleboard from sugarcane residues and woods planer shaving. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 74(2):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mukarakate C, Mittal A, Ciesielski PN, Budhi S, Thompson L, Iisa K, et al. (2016) The influence of crystal allomorph and crystallinity on the products and behavior of cellulose during fast pyrolysis. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4(9):4662–4674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li X, Wu Y, Zheng X (2011) Effect of nano anhydrous magnesium carbonateon fire-retardant performance of polylactic acid/bamboo fibers composites. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11(12):10620–10623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li J, Hunt JF, Gong S, Cai Z (2016a) Simplified analytical model and balanced design approach for light-weight wood-based structural panel in bending. Compos Struct 136:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li K, Wan JM, Wang X, Wang JF, Zhang JH (2016b) Comparison of dilute acid and alkali pretreatments in production of fermentable sugars from bamboo: effect of tween 80. Ind Crop Prod 83:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu D, Song J, Anderson DP, Chang PR, Yan H (2012) Bamboo fiber and its reinforced composites: structure and properties. Cellulose 19(5):1449–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maxim F, Ferreira P, Vilarinho PM (2011) Influence of the neutralization process on the preparation of titanate nanotubes by hydrothermal synthesis. J Porous Mater 18(1):37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nie S, Liu X, Dai G, Yuan S, Cai F, Li B et al (2012) Investigation on flame retardancy and thermal degradation of flame retardant poly(butylene succinate)/bamboo fiber biocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 125(S2):E485–E489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pozo Morales A, Güemes A, Fernandezlopez A, Carcelen Valero V, Sonia DLRL (2017) Bamboo–polylactic acid (pla) composite material for structural applications. Materials 10(11):1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Qi JQ, Xie JL, Huang XY, Yu WJ, Chen SM (2014) Influence of characteristic inhomogeneity of bamboo culm on mechanical properties of bamboo plywood: effect of culm height. J Wood Sci 60(6):396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sassu M, De AF, Giresini L, Puppio ML (2016) Structural solutions for low-cost bamboo frames: experimental tests and constructive assessments. Materials 9(5):346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shah DU, Bock MCD, Mulligan H, Ramage MH (2016) Thermal conductivity of engineered bamboo composites. J Mater Sci 51(6):2991–3002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Song R, Yan J, Xu S, Wang Y, Ye T, Chang J et al (2013) Silver ions/ovalbumin films layer-by-layer self-assembled polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous mats and their antibacterial activity. Colloid Surf B 108(4):322–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Song X, Gu H, Wang M, Zhou G, Li Q (2016) Management practices regulate the response of moso bamboo foliar stoichiometry to nitrogen deposition. Sci Rep-Uk 6:24107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sukmawan R, Takagi H, Nakagaito AN (2016) Strength evaluation of cross-ply green composite laminates reinforced by bamboo fiber. Compos Part B-Eng 84:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Szewczyńska M, Pośniak M (2017) Assessment of occupational exposure to wood dust in the polish furniture industry. Med Pr 68(1):45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Uner IH, Deveci I, Baysal E, Turkoglu T, Toker H, Peker H (2016) Thermal analysis of oriental beech wood treated with some borates as fire retardants. Wood Res-Slovak 18(2):293–304Google Scholar
  27. Wang YY, Shih YF (2016) Flame-retardant recycled bamboo chopstick fiber-reinforced poly(lactic acid) green composites via multifunctional additive system. J Taiwan Inst Chem E 65:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yan K, Ding F, Bentley WE, Deng H, Du Y, Payne GF et al (2013) Coding for hydrogel organization through signal guided self-assembly. Soft Matter 10(3):465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang Y, Tong Z, Geng Y, Li Y, Zhang M (2013) Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers. J Agric Food Chem 61(34):8166–8174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yao L, Wang Y, Li Y, Duan J (2017) Thermal properties and crystallization behaviors of polylactide/redwood flour or bamboo fiber composites. Iran Polym J 26(2):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yusoff RB, Takagi H, Nakagaito AN (2016) Tensile and flexural properties of polylactic acid-based hybrid green composites reinforced by kenaf, bamboo and coir fibers. Ind Crop Prod 94:562–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biological Science and BiotechnologyMinnan Normal UniversityZhangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Food Science and EngineeringWuhan Polytechnic UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations