Advertisement

Cellulose

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Fabrication and characterization of emulsified and freeze-dried epoxy/cellulose nanofibril nanocomposite foam

  • Jinghao Li
  • Qiangu Yan
  • Zhiyong CaiEmail author
Original Research
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

Utilization of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) material for light weight and high strength structural composites has attracted considerable attention in the recent years. CNF aerogels have a microporous structure that could have potential properties, such as ultra-low density, high porosity, high specific surface area, high flexibility, and low thermal conductivity. However, producing such a product is still somewhat problematic. In this study, an epoxy/CNF (EP/CNF) nanocomposite foam with micro-rib structures has been developed using emulsification combined with freeze-dried processes. The microstructures of these new EP/CNF composite foams were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology showed that CNF fiber walls were uniformly sealed with epoxy resin after curing. Mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of the EP/CNF composites foams were tested using the compression test, water absorption test, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the CNFs played an important role in forming a skeleton like structure within these composite foams. The amount of EP in the EP/CNF emulsions had significant effect on the compressive properties and water resistance. Samples fabricated with higher epoxy content had higher compressive properties, better water resistance, and thermal stability. The epoxy/CNF nanocomposites properties were significantly improved as compared to pure CNF aerogel. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nanocomposites was influenced by the EP/CNF composition. The mechanical and physical properties of EP/CNF nanocomposite foams could be optimized via changing the weight ratio of epoxy resin in EP/CNF emulsion according to the demanding of specific application.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Emulsification Cellulose Epoxy Characteristic Foam Properties 

References

  1. Ahmadzadeh S, Keramat J, Nasirpour A, Hamdami N, Behzad T, Aranda L, Vilasi M, Desobry S (2016) Structural and mechanical properties of clay nanocomposite foams based on cellulose for the food-packaging industry. J Appl Polym Sci 133:510–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM D570 (1998) Standard test method for water absorption of plastics. American Society for Testing and Materials, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM D695 (2010) Standard test method for compressive properties of rigid plastics. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  4. Bledzki AK, Gassan J (1999) Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Prog Polym Sci 24:221–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen B, Zheng Q, Zhu J, Li J, Cai Z, Chen L, Gong S (2016) Mechanically strong fully biobased anisotropic cellulose aerogels. RSC Adv 6:96518–96526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du H, Liu C, Mu X, Gong W, Lv D, Hong Y, Si C, Li B (2016) Preparation and characterization of thermally stable cellulose nanocrystals via a sustainable approach of FeCl3-catalyzed formic acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 23:2389–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fowler PA, Hughes JM, Elias RM (2006) Biocomposites: technology, environmental credentials and market forces. J Sci Food Agric 86:1781–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Han J, Yue Y, Wu Q, Huang C, Pan H, Zhan X, Mei C, Xu X (2017) Effects of nanocellulose on the structure and properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax hybrid foams. Cellulose 24:4433–4448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hodgkin JH, Simon GP, Varley RJ (1998) Thermoplastic toughening of epoxy resins: a critical review. Polym Adv Technol 9:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jeronimidis G (1979) Wood, one of nature’s challenging composites. Symp Soc Exp Biol 34:169–182Google Scholar
  12. Khalil HPSA, Bhat AH, Yusra AFI (2012) Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: a review. Carbohydr Polym 87:963–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kord B (2013) Effect of nanoclay on thickness swelling behavior in the extrusion foaming of wood flour/polyethylene composites. J Thermoplast Compos 26:1303–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee S-Y, Chun S-J, Kang I-A, Park J-Y (2009) Preparation of cellulose nanofibrils by high-pressure homogenizer and cellulose-based composite films. J Ind Eng Chem 15:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leng W, Li J, Cai Z (2017) Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polyurethane foam. Polymers 9:597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li J, Hunt JF, Gong S, Cai Z (2014a) High strength wood-based sandwich panels reinforced with fiberglass and foam. BioResources 9:1898–1913Google Scholar
  17. Li Z, Yao C, Wang F, Cai Z, Wang X (2014b) Cellulose nanofiber-templated three-dimension TiO2 hierarchical nanowire network for photoelectrochemical photoanode. Nanotechnology 25:504005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li J, Hunt JF, Gong S, Cai Z (2017a) Low-velocity impact and compressive behavior for shifted-tri-axial composite panels. J Sandw Struct Mater.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1099636217697498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li J, Hunt JF, Gong S, Cai Z (2017b) Quasi-static compression and low-velocity impact behavior of tri-axial bio-composite structural panels using a spherical head. Materials 10:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li J, Wei L, Leng W, Hunt JF, Cai Z (2018) Fabrication and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils/epoxy nanocomposite foam. J Mater Sci 53:4949–4960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maity P, Kasisomayajula SV, Parameswaran V, Basu S, Gupta N (2008) Improvement in surface degradation properties of polymer composites due to pre-processed nanometric alumina fillers. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 15:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saito T, Hirota M, Tamura N, Kimura S, Fukuzumi H, Heux L, Isogai A (2009) Individualization of nano-sized plant cellulose fibrils by direct surface carboxylation using TEMPO catalyst under neutral conditions. Biomacromolecules 10:1992–1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Soni B, Mahmoud B (2015) Chemical isolation and characterization of different cellulose nanofibers from cotton stalks. Carbohydr Polym 134:581–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wan YJ, Gong LX, Tang LC, Wu LB, Jiang JX (2014) Mechanical properties of epoxy composites filled with silane-functionalized graphene oxide. Compos A Appl S 64:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wei L, McDonald AG, Freitag C, Morrell JJ (2013) Effects of wood fiber esterification on properties, weatherability and biodurability of wood plastic composites. Polym Degrad Stab 98:1348–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xu X, Liu F, Jiang L, Zhu J, Haagenson D, Wiesenborn DP (2013) Cellulose nanocrystals vs. cellulose nanofibrils: a comparative study on their microstructures and effects as polymer reinforcing agents. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:2999–3009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang J, Luo N, Zhang X, Xu L, Wu J, Yu J, He J, Zhang J (2016) All-cellulose nanocomposites reinforced with in situ retained cellulose nanocrystals during selective dissolution of cellulose in an ionic liquid. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4:4417–4423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng Q, Cai Z, Gong S (2014) Green synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid aerogels and their use as superabsorbents. J Mater Chem A 2:3110–3118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zheng Q, Cai Z, Ma Z, Gong S (2015) Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:3263–3271CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA Forest Service, Forest Products LaboratoryMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations